African Americans have systematically been deprived of equal opportunities and fundamental rights in America since the establishment of slavery. Although the Civil Rights Act banned the implementation of segregation and racial inequality over 40 years ago, the overall concept of racial and cultural hierarchy still lingers at the forefront of today’s society. White America’s history of racially oppressing, isolating, and segregating African Americans have led to present-day issues surrounding the political and economic forces that intentionally limits Blacks access to and opportunity from social, economic, educational, and political advancement through the institution of structural racism.
The black subordination social order had remained, unbroken by the abolishment of slavery or the Amendments that followed. The first sign of an attempt at a new social order was seen in Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation of 1862, where slavery was legally abolished in the Union states. Paired with Union victory at Antietam, emancipation looked to be a serious threat to the well-established institution of slavery in the Confederacy, or Southern states. In 1865 Congress had approved the Thirteenth Amendment; it
In the early 20th century, the black people were facing social rights issues most of the time, treated unfairly, and being separated from the whites. For instances, they did not get the rights to vote and get proper education. Such acts reflect that the blacks were still much being discriminated by the whites. With the dawn of 20th century, researchers could not find much evidences about the racial discrimination due to the illiteracy rate of the black people.
Al Sharpton radio host, and minister once said, “We have defeated Jim Crow, but now we have to deal with his son, James Crow Jr., esquire.” (cite) He then goes on to say that his “son” is smarter, slicker, and more cunning than him. This metaphor describes that even though the Jim Crow Laws have been ratified, there is a new racial discrimination in America that is growing and is harder to defeat than the last. The Jim Crow Laws were the set of laws that set the whites and blacks separate from each other in the 1900s, although they have been defeated, America today may be equal lawfully but not on an individual level.
Minorities often become self-oppressive when those who work, live, fight, and die among the white have yet to gain “equality, economic security, or freedom.” Andree Canaan, author of the essay “Browness,” writes “brown is not The Oppressor but the victim. But part of our victimization is self-oppression.” However, it is nearly impossible to cease this alliance since white man’s power is inevitable as they control they entire system, along with its vital resources needed to survive (Canaan, 2015).
Over the last 500 years people of color, especially African American, have endured a pattern of state-sanctioned violence, civil and human rights abuse. To enforce capitalist exploitation and racial oppression the government and its police, courts, prisons, and military have beaten, framed, murdered, and executed private persons, while brutally repressing struggles for freedom, justice, and self-determination” (Fitzgerald, 2007). More often than not, police brutality has been a persistent problem faced by African Americans. “Historically, racist violence has been used to impose racial oppression and preserve white power and privilege. Racist violence has served five primary purposes: to force people of color into indentured, slave, peonage, or low wage situations; to steal land, minerals, and other resources; to maintain social control and to repress rebellions; to restrict or eliminate competition in employment, business, politics, and social life; and to unite “whites” across ethnic/national, class, and gender lines” (Fitzgerald, 2007).
Slavery, Jim Crow, the ghetto, and the carceral apparatus are all structural institutions that share a mutual beneficial relationship where each has supplemented and historically progressed into more advanced subtle forms of oppression and racism. Past and current regimes served as social functions with the objective of encompassing African Americans in a permanent subordinate position. In each generation, newer developments of a racial caste emerge with the same objective of repudiating African Americans citizenship. The only thing that has changed since Jim Crow is the language we use to justify racial exclusion (Alexander, 2). These four regimes are genealogically linked because they all advanced and developed from one another.
The Strange Career of Jim Crow, published in 1955 by C. Vann Woodward, actually helped to shaped a part of U.S history. It was around the same time when the Civil Rights Movement was happening in the United States and right after the Supreme Court ’s decision in Brown v. Board of Education; this book was published to expose a clear and illuminating analysis of the history of the Jim Crow Laws. The south had choices to make regarding race, and the establishment; Jim Crow was not a person but was affiliate to represent the system of government and segregation in the United States. Named after the ‘racial caste system,’ Jim Crow affected millions of americans. Woodward analyzes the impact on the segregation between the North and the South by defining an argument, “Racism was originated in the North.”
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a large portion of Americans were restricted from civil and political rights. In American government in Black and White (Second ed.), Paula D. McClain and Steven C. Tauber and Vanna Gonzales’s power point slides, the politics of race and ethnicity is described by explaining the history of discrimination and civil rights progress for selective groups. Civil rights were retracted from African Americans and Asian Americans due to group designation, forms of inequality, and segregation. These restrictions were combatted by reforms such as the Thirteenth Amendment, the Fourteenth Amendment, the Fifteenth amendment, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, etc. Although civil and political
Annabelle Wintson Bower History 8A March 12, 2018 Title Although the slavery was abolished in 1865, the rights given to African Americans were not nearly equal to those of white Americans. After slavery was abolished, inequality in American society ran high, and many laws were put in place to restrict the rights and abilities of African Americans. Some laws include the Jim Crow Laws (1870 to 1950s) and the Supreme Court Ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that ruled that there could be “separate but equal” facilities and services for people of color and white Americans.
The war began as a struggle to preserve the Union, but not a struggle to free the slaves, and many in the North and South felt that the conflict would decide both issues at last. Many slaves escaped to the North in the early years of the war, and several Union generals established abolitionist policies in the Southern land that they conquered. Congress passed laws permitting the seizure of slaves from the property of rebellious Southerners. On September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln presented the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. On December 6, 1865, eight months after the Civil War ended, the United States adopted the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, which outlawed the practice of
Over the past decade the term white privilege has emerged in our American history. White privilege is the concept that one particular group is benefited which is typically identified as white people. Most of the victims experiencing harsh conditions are non-white people under the same social, political, or economic circumstances of mistreatment. A conversation took place with a few people about white privilege whose race is identified as white. An interviewer started that “the belief that being white comes with unearned advantages and everyday perks”. However, a white retiree disagreed that white privilege does not exist but shortly afterwards he stated that black privilege does. Many people were confused by his comment and asked him to further elaborate on what exactly black
Although the proclamation initially freed the slaves, but only the slaves in the rebellious states, by the end of the war the proclamation had influenced and mentally prepared citizens to support and accept abolition for all the slaves in both the North and South of the nation. On December 6, 1865 the 13th Amendment appeared and it abolished slavery in the United States of America. Abraham Lincoln considered the Emancipation Proclamation his biggest achievement and the climax of his presidency. The president Lincoln basically considered that the Emancipation Proclamation was the most important aspect of his legacy. “I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this paper,” he stated once, “If my name ever goes into history it will be for this act, and my whole soul is in it.”
During the period of civil rights issues in American history African Americans were discriminated. Because of the discrimination against them they were a strong force for changing the laws that prohibited them from being equal. As a result many activists including Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. were leaders against discrimination of African Americans after slavery officially ended after the civil war in America. A man named Medgar Evers was one of these people who was a target of discrimination who then took a stand against the inequality and became a leader of the NAACP.