They happen everywhere. Asians, Africans, Americans, Europeans, and other islanders are victims of racism and sexism. Humans judge each other using external factors, like skin color, custom, knowledge, language, place of birth, and more factors. Wars, slavery, the formation of nations and legal codes made humans judgmental. One question arises, what are human rights violation examples can we see in the novel?
Conceptualizing Racism Throughout Malcolm’s life, he encounters various types of racism that have been instilled into society. The conceptualizing racism aspect includes institutional, individual, and cultural racism. Malcolm experiences all forms of racism as he develops in his life. Institutional racism is a pattern of social institutions that give negative treatment to a group of people based on their race. Individual racism is a practice that reinforces inferiorization based on the beliefs, attitude, and actions of individuals.
Rather than referring to Othello nominally, they refer to him by his ethnicity, showing their inherent racism. According to Kader Mutlu in “Racism in Othello,” Othello “has a harmony of racism. This harmony is provided by the tireless verbalization of ‘otherness’ in the words of ‘Moor’ and ‘Black’” (Mutlu 136). In addition to
1. According to the article, the difference between individual, institutional, and structural racism is: individual racism is examined as a social psychological phenomenon that based on the bias that might be created by different individual’s ideas and beliefs. While institutional racism is “based on a system in which the White majority ‘raises its social position by exploiting, controlling, and keeping down others who are categorized in racial or ethnic terms’” (Silva 1997: 466) The author considered racism as an institutional matter by using the example that the majority of the society might think minorities as colonists who are not belong to this society originally. At last, structural racism is a system regarding to politics, institutional practices, and cultural representation to strengthen the inequalities between different racial groups. 2.
The book goes through each of the three worlds and describe how each world would be affected by coming in contact with the other two. For example, the world of racial segregation did not only affect the African American population, but the whites population, so it affected both the Wade’s world and the Braden’s world. “Racial bars build a wall not only around the Negro people but around the white people as well, cramping their spirits and causing them to
In other words, the majority of society is imposing the concept of injustice on women and minority groups through the means of unfair treatment and justification of those actions by attributing them to disability. As a result, the majority gains the power of authority over the inferior groups, exhibiting hegemonic ambitions (DOC 1). Hegemony can be defined as the cultural and materialistic oppression of certain groups based on their associations, which was being done to the subordinate groups. Both concepts of domination and subordination and hegemony closely intertwine into Baynton’s definition of “disability”, as both involve an oppressor group that creates roles in society for minor, submissive groups, in order to gain political and economical power over others through the label of disability. In the case of justice, both these ideas contribute the dismissal of this notion of impartiality by creating terms of inequality among every group.
Reverse racism is defined as a phenomenon in which discrimination against a dominant racial representative of the majority in a society. There are three main terms that exist when dealing with racism and “reverse racism”, these are: prejudice, discrimination, and racism. These terms are crucial to know the distinction between when referring to reverse racism because of the often confusion the line between discrimination and racism. Prejudice is defined as an irrational feeling of dislike for a person or group of persons, usually based on stereotypes. Discrimination, however, takes place the moment a person acts of prejudice.
Critical Whiteness Studies responds to the invisible and normative nature of whiteness in predominantly white societies, criticizing racial and ethnic attribution of non-white subjects who have to grapple with their deviation from the set norm, and opening the discussion on white privilege that results from being the unmarked norm (Kerner: 278). As Conway and Steyn elaborate, Critical Whiteness Studies aims to “redirect[...] the scholarly gaze from the margins to the centre” (283) and, more specifically, to interrogat[e][...] the centre of power and privilege from which racialization emanates but which operates more or less invisibly as it constructs itself as both the norm and ideal of what it means to be human. (ibid.) Thus, Critical Whiteness
In explaining the accounts for the racial differences, the paper will utilize the group-position model of race relations. The model is an element of conflict theory that views racial personality not just as a consequence of negative perception between different racial groups but as a reflection of the competition and conflict between the same groups over power and status. The model roots its argument in a collective group position with the group interest being the driving force that underlie the relation between the groups. Most of the group interest are attached to the beliefs of the members that they have claims to the scarce resources. The attitude of the dominant group towards other racial groups are positional: a term that defines the shape of the sense of the supremacy of the groups over other minority groups.
This [trust] resulted in the discharge of a large number of laborers who had to suffer in consequence . . . The most distressing feature of this war of the trusts is the fact that they control the articles which the plain people consume in their daily life” (Document E). Finally, the cruel punishment of the workers in the workplace is seen in the previously mentioned, “Concentration of Industry, and Machinery in the United States,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.