Conceptualizing Racism Throughout Malcolm’s life, he encounters various types of racism that have been instilled into society. The conceptualizing racism aspect includes institutional, individual, and cultural racism. Malcolm experiences all forms of racism as he develops in his life. Institutional racism is a pattern of social institutions that give negative treatment to a group of people based on their race. Individual racism is a practice that reinforces inferiorization based on the beliefs, attitude, and actions of individuals.
1. According to the article, the difference between individual, institutional, and structural racism is: individual racism is examined as a social psychological phenomenon that based on the bias that might be created by different individual’s ideas and beliefs. While institutional racism is “based on a system in which the White majority ‘raises its social position by exploiting, controlling, and keeping down others who are categorized in racial or ethnic terms’” (Silva 1997: 466)
On top of this, he argues that the white middle class are unrelenting with their methods of depriving black advancement in American society. Knowledge of this incites many blacks to occupy dead-end jobs, or to settle for mediocrity in the face of adversity. A large number of black males in America find themselves forced to take jobs that offer no security, or socioeconomic growth. He also contends that many blacks are not very literate and therefore left behind in cultural revolutions like the information age. For twelve months between 1962 and 1963, Liebow and a group of researchers studied the behavior of a group of young black men who lived near and frequently hung around a street corner in a poor black neighborhood in downtown Washington, D.C. Liebow’s participant observation revealed the numerous obstacles facing black men on a day-to-day basis, including the structural and individual levels of racial discrimination propagated by whites in society.
Being supremacist can bigly affect another person. Racism mirrors the convictions of individuals who trust that a specific race is predominant or inferior then another. It is the prejudice demonstration towards individuals from one race who are better
National identity, itself is often difficult to conceive, but can only be explained in terms of racial. US national identity is sadly a combination of external and internal racisms. External racism occurs when powerful racial groups aim to remove the weak racial groups from schools, jobs, neighborhoods, and social spaces. Native people are likely to experienced external racism—being treated as foreign invaders. By contrast, internal racisms occur when powerful groups subordinate the weak racial groups in order to maintain their standard of living.
Racial oppression was due to economic class subordination in America years ago. Black people in America did not have the same rights as white people as they were “denied access to valued and scarce resources through various ingenious schemes of racial exploitation, discrimination and segregation, schemes that were reinforced by elaborate ideologies of racism.” (Wilson 1). The class difference between black people and white people in America was very significant years ago due to a number of factors. Racial inequality was deliberate between race, class and ethnicity as the “white economic elite wanted to exploit black labour or the actions of the white masses to eliminate or neutralise black competition”.
Racial profiling is based off of the assumption that “...any particular individual of one race or ethnicity is more likely to engage in misconduct than any particular individual of other races or ethnicities. ”(Fact Sheet). Racial Profiling separates people by color, race or ethnicity, like discrimination. Within this discrimination, they are basically say that one kind is more likely to do one thing then another. There is evidence that“ ...even deep-seated stereotypes and unconscious biases can be eroded through both education and exposure to minorities who don’t fit common stereotypes...
In the eyes of Martin Luther King Jr., Justice within a society is achieved through the implementation of just laws. Furthermore, “just laws are regulations that have been created by man that follow the laws of God for man” (“Clergymen’s Letter”). Any law that does not correspond with the ideals of God and morality are considered to be unjust or a form of injustice. King identifies that injustice is clearly evident within the justice system. This injustice can truly be seen through the misconduct imposed toward the African American community.
Reverse racism is defined as a phenomenon in which discrimination against a dominant racial representative of the majority in a society. There are three main terms that exist when dealing with racism and “reverse racism”, these are: prejudice, discrimination, and racism. These terms are crucial to know the distinction between when referring to reverse racism because of the often confusion the line between discrimination and racism.
Do you think America is institutionally racist? Who is at a disadvantage? Institutional racism means that there is a systematic way for certain groups of people to be put at a lower level or advantage than another group of people. There was definitely institutional racism in America about fifty years ago, and I know that because I can name specific institutions who were racist to the black minority. But in order for anyone to fight modern day institutional racism, you have to tell me what company is being racist, tell me why, and we can fight that together.
Institutional racism is inevitable in the United States. Institutional racism is constantly occurring, whether it be in the work force, schools, or the criminal justice system. The color of one’s skin is a determining factor for his success in a company, and whether or not he ends up in the court systems, and for how long. Although laws such as the Thirteenth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, and Fifteenth Amendment have been put in place to avoid racism in America and give black people equal rights, institutional racism is still holding African Americans back.
Colorblind is not the same as racial equality because it ignores the identity and culture of an individual, assumes that we are in a post-racial society and distorts the definition of a racist individual. For an individual to say that they are colorblind, it is blatantly ignoring the identity and culture of that person. With this ideology many people believe that they are aiding the issue of a racial divide in America; because, if you see people as ‘one race’ and not the color of their skin then how can one be racist. However, as Williams stated “Colorblindness alone is not sufficient enough on a national or personal level.
Issues that are prevalent through out many sport organizations is the lack of diversity and potential opportunities for discrimination. Often times intertwined with one another, there is a need to understand why this is occurring and how myself along with other practitioners of sport can make strides in combating against these issues. Although not dependent on one another, they are both equally worthy of discussion. In respect to human resource management, diversity and discrimination are two topics that can not be avoided when creating policies, hiring practices or rules and regulations for workplace environments. This paper will discuss the backgrounds of each topic and how they are both portrayed and represented in sport organizations.