1. According to the article, the difference between individual, institutional, and structural racism is: individual racism is examined as a social psychological phenomenon that based on the bias that might be created by different individual’s ideas and beliefs. While institutional racism is “based on a system in which the White majority ‘raises its social position by exploiting, controlling, and keeping down others who are categorized in racial or ethnic terms’” (Silva 1997: 466) The author considered racism as an institutional matter by using the example that the majority of the society might think minorities as colonists who are not belong to this society originally. At last, structural racism is a system regarding to politics, institutional practices, and cultural representation to strengthen the inequalities between different racial groups. 2.
He also argues that this is a cycle that inevitably results in a trans-generational marginalization of the black race. On top of this, he argues that the white middle class are unrelenting with their methods of depriving black advancement in American society. Knowledge of this incites many blacks to occupy dead-end jobs, or to settle for mediocrity in the face of adversity. A large number of black males in America find themselves forced to take jobs that offer no security, or socioeconomic growth. He also contends that many blacks are not very literate and therefore left behind in cultural revolutions like the information age.
This exclusion is generally made when minorities are spoken to as outside and subsequently diverse. Likewise racism is being discriminatory or having damaging conduct towards individuals from another race. Being supremacist can bigly affect another person. Racism mirrors the convictions of individuals who trust that a specific race is predominant or inferior then another. It is the prejudice demonstration towards individuals from one race who are better
National identity, itself is often difficult to conceive, but can only be explained in terms of racial. US national identity is sadly a combination of external and internal racisms. External racism occurs when powerful racial groups aim to remove the weak racial groups from schools, jobs, neighborhoods, and social spaces. Native people are likely to experienced external racism—being treated as foreign invaders. By contrast, internal racisms occur when powerful groups subordinate the weak racial groups in order to maintain their standard of living.
Racial oppression was due to economic class subordination in America years ago. Black people in America did not have the same rights as white people as they were “denied access to valued and scarce resources through various ingenious schemes of racial exploitation, discrimination and segregation, schemes that were reinforced by elaborate ideologies of racism.” (Wilson 1). The class difference between black people and white people in America was very significant years ago due to a number of factors. Racial inequality was deliberate between race, class and ethnicity as the “white economic elite wanted to exploit black labour or the actions of the white masses to eliminate or neutralise black competition”. (Wilson 2).
Within this discrimination, they are basically say that one kind is more likely to do one thing then another. There is evidence that“ ...even deep-seated stereotypes and unconscious biases can be eroded through both education and exposure to minorities who don’t fit common stereotypes...they can be contained when people are held accountable for their decisions. “(Fact Sheet). Racial profiling dehumanizes societies and is a bias act made by authorities. Using Racial profiling creates tension, especially when people are treated differently because of the way they look.
A significant flaw that was identified is the injustice of specifically targeting African American men for crimes due to the racial stereotypes formed as a result of racial formation. Racial formation is the accumulation of racial identities and categories that are formed, reconstructed, and abrogated throughout history.
Reverse racism is defined as a phenomenon in which discrimination against a dominant racial representative of the majority in a society. There are three main terms that exist when dealing with racism and “reverse racism”, these are: prejudice, discrimination, and racism. These terms are crucial to know the distinction between when referring to reverse racism because of the often confusion the line between discrimination and racism. Prejudice is defined as an irrational feeling of dislike for a person or group of persons, usually based on stereotypes. Discrimination, however, takes place the moment a person acts of prejudice.
Do you think America is institutionally racist? Who is at a disadvantage? Institutional racism means that there is a systematic way for certain groups of people to be put at a lower level or advantage than another group of people. There was definitely institutional racism in America about fifty years ago, and I know that because I can name specific institutions who were racist to the black minority. But in order for anyone to fight modern day institutional racism, you have to tell me what company is being racist, tell me why, and we can fight that together.