Radar Detection And Ranging

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INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview of Radar The word RADAR is an acronym coined in 1942 by U.S Navy for RAdio Detection And Ranging whose principle of operation is if an electromagnetic wave encounters sudden change in conductivity, permittivity or permeability in the medium, a part of the electromagnetic energy gets absorbed by the second medium and is re-radiated. Radar was originally developed to satisfy the needs of the military for surveillance and weapon control.
Radar is an electronic sensor for the detection and location of reflecting objects. Radar radiates electromagnetic energy from an antenna to propagate in space. Some of the radiated energy is intercepted by a reflecting object, usually called a target, located at a distance from radar.
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• High Resolution Radar: High resolution can be obtained in the range, angle, or Doppler velocity coordinates, but high resolution usually implies that the radar has high range resolution.
• Continuous Wave Radar: this radar employs a continuous sine wave. It almost always uses the Doppler frequency shift for detecting moving target or for measuring the relative velocity of the target.
• Moving Target Indication (MTI): This is pulse radar that detects moving targets in clutter by using low Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) that usually has n pulse ambiguities.
There are many more radars like Synthetic aperture radar, weapon control radar, guidance radar, weather observation radar, Doppler weather radar, target recognition radar and multi functioning radar. A special type of radar we use here is as airborne radar. They were initially developed for the detection of ships by long range patrol aircraft. Later, Airborne Early Warning (AEW) radars were developed to detect low-flying aircraft approaching a task force below the radar coverage of the ships antenna. The advantage of airborne platform in extending maximum detection range for air and surface targets is apparent when one considers that the radar horizon is 12nmi for a 100ft antenna mast compared with approximately 195nmi for a 25,000ft aircraft
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One of the widest used and lest expensive radars has been the civil marine radar found throughout the world for safe navigation of boats and ships. CW Doppler radar measures the speed of the vehicle where most of the police men use it to catch speed drivers. Ground penetrating radars are been used to find buried utility lines. It is also been detected that radar can detect the gas seepage that is often found over underground oil and gas

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