Summary: Radical Constructivism

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Chapter 1
1. Introduction
The history of learning theory can be traced back to Ancient Greece, where the modern history of learning psychology dates back to the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. Learning primary interest was purely based on behavior which developed the psychology of learning as ‘behaviorism’ (Gropper, 1987).
The aim of instruction for behaviorism is to extract the desired knowledge from learners who are shown by a target motivation, provide a situation for learners to prompts along with their goal stimuli concurrently, and then provide a learning environment for learners in order to give desired response, to practice on their motivation and aim and to obtain strengthening of their responses (Gropper,
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Radical constructivism is relying on the assumption which is in the head of a person, the topic doesn’t have any alternative, it is the basis of the persons’ experience. Critical Constructivism adds a dimension of critical assessment and educational improvement to the instructional process. This method contains the utilization of communicative behavior that explains the circumstances of creating dialog by focusing on understanding mutually among teachers and learners (Jonassen, 1991a).
On the other hand the social constructivism is the important dimension of constructivism domain. The social constructivism would be considered as a "strong" form of constructivism, emphasizing all four of the epistemological tenets. However, social constructivists generally downplay the mental construction of knowledge (not because social constructivists do not believe in mental construction, but because it is seen as relatively trivial and emphasize the co-construction of meaning within a social activity. In this sense, social constructivism is more concerned with more meaning than structure (Pitchard,
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This diversity shows some difficulties such as; Tretten and Zachariou (1997) indicated in their research report about PBL in different classrooms, the diverse practices under the label of PBL study makes it hard to evaluate what is not PBL, what is PBL, and what you are assessing is related with a “real project”.
Although, the teachers may understand and act as a provider in PBL learning classroom, success cannot be obtained at the end. Moreover, in the course, learners have control of their own studying and activities in the class. This method of teaching contributes to the students’ self-esteem that give them responsibility to assess their own ideas. This responsibility makes a challenge about PBL learning in the loss of their self-motivation, deadlines and individual study. Furthermore, conducting these individual projects makes learners to spend considerable effort due to lack of interaction (Gülbahar& Tinmaz,
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