The Modern Gender Stereotypes: A Normative Critique. Gender stereotypes are particularly attributed to men and women as in society reinforcing the distribution of different roles based on gender. According to Martin, Little and Wood (1990), gender stereotypes refer to a set of societal norms that hold the fixed ideas about male’s and female’s trait and capabilities and what type of behaviors are generally considered acceptable by the society, based on their sex. Several things are thought to be correlated with gender stereotyping which include the gender concept of femininity and masculinity, the portrayal of domination of men against women and the character traits people hold based on the sex preferences. These are regarding to the behavior
Radical feminism is defined as a philosophy that emphasizes the patriarchal roots of inequality between men and women. As well as the social dominance of women by men. Radical feminism has been established in the wider radical movement where women had participated in anti-war and New Left political movements of the 1960s. Women were finding themselves excluded from equal power by the men within the movement. Radical feminism viewed patriarchy as dividing rights, privileges and power primarily by sex, this resulted in the oppression of women and privileging men.
Feminist scholars use a conflict approach to analyze general themes of gender relations as well as the influence of the family. Scholars of feminist approach examined the role of the family in maintaining inequalities in male-females relations. The liberal feminist’s uses conflict approach in terms of inequalities faced by females and privileges enjoyed by male in every aspect of society. Because of decision making power that leads to oppression of women. (Wollstonecraft, Marry.1792).
Power, or more precisely hegemonic power, not only operates through oppression, but also operates through the construction of norms and values. The premise of gender inequalities and masculine privilege lies in the fact that elite men hold the power to define and construct the identity and position of other groups in society depending on the definition of hegemonic masculinity (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005). Men in American society aspire to the characteristics of hegemonic masculinity (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005). It is a pattern of practice and discourse that places women, and men from racial and sexual minorities, as second-class citizens (Connell, 2005). Our understanding of gender inequalities in society is based on how hegemonic masculinity operates.
The essay, The Great Lawsuit, written by Margret Fuller was created to state Fuller’s opinion about the complexed idea of men and women in the world. In her essay, Fuller gave many arguments, but the most influential point was the inequality of women. The essay argued the idea of women only seen as helpers of society. In history, men were portrayed as powerful and useful asset to society, but the women were portrayed as a man’s wife and mother. The author says men are dominant and women are weak in society’s eyes, and most of Fuller’s points are correct about the inequality of
Intersectional Feminist Theory is the theory that women experience oppression in various forms and ways. Cultural patterns have become interlocked by the intersectional systems that society has created to continue the multi facets of oppression. This is increased where transitioning which, in itself, is taboo for why would a man want to be a woman. A man has greater rights than a woman and is widely more respected. Both trans women and natural born women face over-sexualizaton of their bodies along with societal and bodily discrimination, and physical objectification.
Gender inequality is a social justice issue that is prominent in several societies as it is a direct reflection of the systematic power distribution amongst the two binary genders. This form of inequality is reflected through a set of adverse behaviours projected from one individual to another, known as domestic violence. Individuals perform the identities that is associated with their gender role because it is what is culturally acceptable within their given society. Judith Butler’s theory of ‘Gender as a Performance’ depicts that the practices that individuals repeat and perform assure the elements that an identity is composed of. This theory is an embodiment of domestic violence as it establishes the inequality amongst the different genders, by allowing the male to perform his dominance, causing the female to feel inferior to this.
LITERATURE VIEW In today’s world, it cannot be denied that patriarchy, political, social and traditional power of male over other genders, is faced inevitably (Goldberg, 1993) Sexism is one of the most common problematic issues in today’s society that shapes people behavior on gender and usually it is seen as hostile behavior against women. However, its one side of which people are unaware is missed: positive-thought part of sexism (Glick and Fiske, 1996). Benevolent sexism and hostile sexism are subdivisions of ambivalent sexism.
It argues that the oppression of women is the most widespread, the oldest and the most difficult to eradicate. From these ideas of radical feminism, it can be seen that power lies in the structures built into our society, and most importantly that this power is used on behalf of patriarchal values which seek to keep women oppressed and subservient to men. The methodology of radical feminism to eradicate this power would be a complete upheaval of our political and economic institutions. Radical feminism has many contrasts and similarities to other forms of feminisms. In one regard, radical feminism and Marxist feminism resemble each other.
1. Mill and Marx both argue that women are oppressed in modern society. How are their understandings of this oppression similar/different? Mill’s and Marx’s understanding of female oppression by the society is more different than similar.