Rainfall Runoff Essay

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Rainfall and runoff are the important components which contribute significantly to the hydrological cycle, in designing different hydrological structures and morphology of the drainage system. The relationship between rainfall and runoff is a complex hydrological phenomenon as it involves various temporal and spatial variations in the physical processes of watersheds as well as rainfall pattern over the region. Therefore, rainfall-runoff relationship study is useful from management of water resources and forecasting point of view. However direct rainfall-runoff estimation is not possible for most of the locations at required time and duration.

It is well know that rainfall processes exhibits a high degree of variability both in space and time. In a tropical country like India, rainfall is the most important agro-climatic parameter to the agricultural activities as well as for ground water recharge for potential ground water. Large numbers of studies are available at national and international level regarding rainfall- runoff relationship for different river basins.

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in the Western Ghats (Rao, 1975) which is the predominant source of water for the river. The river then flows east through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh for a distance of about 1300 km before merging in the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladevi in Andhra Pradesh. The drainage area of the basin is 258948 sq.km; of which 26.8% lies in Maharashtra, 43.8% in Karnataka and 29.4% in Andhra Pradesh. The basin covers approximately 700 km of the Western Ghats. After flowing for about 137 kms from its origin it is joined by the Koyna river flowing from the western side and the Varna, the Panchganga and the Doodhganga rivers from the other side covering about 150 km area of the Western Ghats. After emerging from the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, it is joined by the Ghataprabha and the Malaprabha from the

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