Unlike in rural settings where young children are allowed to defecate in the yard or on land surrounding the household, in urban slums, the lack of improved sanitation leaves parents with limited options for disposal of children’s faeces, which are, in turn, left in common alleyways or drainage ditches. A number of researchers have documented that inadequate access to sanitation compels slum residents to use unhygienic pit latrines, polythene bags or discharging into nearby open storm drains, creating significant disease-related hazards and environmental pollution. Pollution loads from slum areas are closely associated with settlement density, number of people using each pit, and geological conditions,and have high potential to cause eutrophication of downstream water sources(Isunju et al.,
Large number of the world’s population in recent times tend to live in cities, since it became a standard of living for a large group of people. In the year 2007 half of the world 's population and in 2030 three quarters will be living in urban areas; whereas a great portion of these people are expected to live in slum settlements. The reason behind this increase is due to several factors, including population growth, increased survival and migration. Therefore it should be noted here that the number of diseases will increase due to city congestion. (Freudenberg, Galea and Vlahov, 2006; ICSU, 2011).
Urban problems, urban solutions Currently half of the world’s population live in cities. According to the World Health Organization, this will increase to 70 percent of the population in 2050. This urbanization is rapid and, especially in non-western cities, largely unplanned. Global leaders from government and the business community alike have a shared interest in making cities resilient to the physical, social, and economic challenges that they will face in the 21st century. If they fail to do so, health hazards, infrastructure failure, economic downturn and political instability may be the result.
Almost 60% of Latin America’s poor reside in Urban areas, 30% of Eastern Europe’s and Central Asia’s, Less than 30% of Sub-Saharan Africa’s, 20% of South Asia’s, Less than 20% of Middle East’s and North Africa’s and 10% of East Asia and Pacific’s reside in urban areas. Source: Ravallion, Chen, and Sangraula (2007) Moreover, according to Socioeconomic Data and Application Centre, Columbia University, Poverty Maps report, the world is undergoing significant transformation. As the population of world will be more in urban areas than rural. Africa and Asia are the two regions of the world expected to undergo the most rapid urban change. As it is going to reflect in the world’s poorest countries because they are they have least resources to invest in infrastructure to support them, viz-a-viz, housing, water and sanitation facilities; and least opportunities to avail and climb up to reach above poverty line.
Holleman underscores this when he directly links peri-urban to the concept of a "change in mental orientation. Importantly, what seems to be not essential to the definition of peri urban is "proximity to the city". The fact that much peri urban "place" is proximate to the city is substantively important and instrumental to a comprehensive understanding of peri urban, but it is incidental to an elemental understanding of peri urban. As we shall elaborate, "proximity to city" represents a further specification, which allows us to distinguish between "types" of peri urban, not to define peri urban in the first place. Additionally, concentration on geographic location as a basis for defining peri urban also undermines a clear understanding of the rural-urban spectrum as dynamic, interactive and
1) Introduction – Urban and Rural Regeneration in Asia: “According to United Nations latest report, projections show that urbanisation with the overall growth of the world’s population could add another 2.5 billion people to urban populations by 2050, with 90% of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa.” (source: http://www.un.org) Asia has most populous countries like China, India, Indonesia, etc. and most populous cities like Tokyo-Yokohama, Jakarta, Delhi, Manila, Beijing, Shanghai etc. in the world. This emerging population to the urban areas have to merge in to the urban life and its regular system. urban regeneration or renewal projects gives opportunity to reduce complexity of the city and acts as supporting system.
Vietnam – Ho Chi Minh Vietnam has a population of almost 90 million people. Thirty million of its residents live in urban areas, totaling 34 percent of the population. In regards to poverty, as of 1993, the poverty rate in Vietnam was 58.1 percent, as of 2008, Vietnam had reduced poverty to 14.5 percent.However, in urban areas, such as Ho Chi Minh City, a reduction in poverty lags. Until 1975, Ho Chi Minh City or HCMC was known as Saigon. It is the largest city in the country and sits at the mouth of the Mekong Delta.
Compare and contrast the main characteristics of the urbanization process in the First and Third World Introduction Observing the expansion of cities, development of central business district as the core of a city and huge population migrating into more-developed urban area, we can deduce that we have been under the influence of urbanization. Urbanization—known as the major trend after the 18th century’s Industrial Revolution— basically refers to the rise in proportion of the total population living in urban areas (Pacione, Michael, 2009). Under globalization, boundaries of countries being blurrier, the process of urbanization seems to be inevitable, whilst proceeding differently in First and Third World countries. And so, in this essay,
The world is undergoing rapid urbanization. At the global scale, more people currently reside in urban areas than rural areas (UN Habitat & UNECA, 2008). The population balance between urban and rural areas has been shifting over time. In 1930 for instance, only 30% of the global population was urban and by 2008, half of the world’s population was urban (Soja & Kanai, 2007). Currently, the urban population stands at 54%; a proportion projected to rise to 66% by 2050 (UNDESA, 2014).
It is difficult to ignore the accelerating growth of urbanization. Urbanization has shaped developed countries during the 20th century, but it has had even more transformative effects on developing countries. Several factors distinguish urbanization in developing countries from urbanization in developed countries: (a) It occurs at an even quicker pace, (b) much larger numbers of populations are involved and (c) Urbanization and income growth are less closely connected than they were for developed countries. By 2100, according to UN DESA in 2013, the share of the urban population is projected to reach around 9 billion, corresponding to close to 85% of the population. This period of rapid urbanization will also have experienced the rise of the