Rapid Urbanization Case Study

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Rapid urbanization has surpassed the ability of city authorities to provide housing and environmental infrastructure. This can be seen in the proportion of the population that is living in slums as illustrated in Table 1.
Urban population living in squatter and slum settlements, 2009
Country Percent
Angola 65.8
Bangladesh 61.6
Benin 69.8
Central African Republic 95.9
China 29.1
Brazil 26.9
India 29.4
Kenya 54.7
Source: MDGI
Cities like Dhaka in Bangladesh, Mumbai in India are metropolitan or urban regions spreading in large areas. Others like Manila in the Philippines or Jakarta in Indonesia are really mega urban regions. There is some difference in their government. Jakarta’s urban government has the status of
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presently, there are 200,000 of these communities in the world, according to the UN Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing, most of these communities are in and around cities, and their number is increasing exponentially. Even before the economic crisis which is observed in 2008, about 33% of all city population live in slums, slums which will expand its size by one billion more people within the next twenty years.(International Business Times 10/2014)
Although 90 percent of the world's informal settlements are in developing countries like India and Brazil, they spread in whole world and also in European countries and largest American cities.
In India ,during British colonialism cities were segmented into blocks, wards and colonies, whereby people belonging to similar socio economic conditions, when come to these cities they live together in the segment to which their socio economic condition
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Living condition in slum is very poor.Slum dwellers do not have proper housing facilities,sanitation and ventilation in their houses. They lack basic services like safe drinking water, clean cooking fuel , toilet facilities etc. The conditions differ from one slum to another. In Kenya,Dakar;s slum has 82% electricity connections while the Nairobi slum has only 22% so that 77% of Nairobi slum dwellers uses kerosene for lighting ,while this percentage is very low say 55 in Dakar’s slum.(Gulyani et. al 2014). If we see in the context of Indian slum, number of slum dwellers using kerosene or solid fuel varies all over the country. The comparison on the basis of use of kerosene or solid fuel for slums in eight cities of India is shown in graph below:
Percentage of households using kerosene or solid fuel
City Delhi Meerut Kolkata Indore Mumabi Nagpur Hyderabad Chennai
PERCENTAGE 52 47 65 13 32 44 33 55
Source: NFHS Report 2009
The various conditions are tabulated in following table for Mankhurd Slum in Mumbai.
Household Amenities Ctegories Percentage
Ownership of house

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