My topic which is the urban poor and their unsure uniqueness basically it relates that in this modern world the concept of urbanization is increasing day by day. It is accepted to be a one good step but finishing the rural area and converting it to an urban area is increasing the rate of people being urban poor. The urban growth is attributed to both natural population growth, and rural to urban migration. Urbanization contributes to constant economic growth which is serious to poverty reduction. The economies of scale and collection in cities attract investors and entrepreneurs which is good for overall economic development.
Indeed, the book is a perfect reflection of the situation of urban centers in the contemporary world. Application of the authors’ concepts may contribute to the consequence of rapid urbanization and slow growth of cities as well. Chapter 9 of the book highlights the importance of effective leadership in the management of cities to stimulate their growth. Additionally, Glaeser recommends the promotion of READING RESPONSE4 education and consumerism to spur economic growth. He asserts that a society that is enlightened is capable of solving the various challenges in urban centers.
To elaborate, these urban cities provided job opportunities to women. Nevertheless, the poor lived in terrible conditions, child labor was common, conflicts arose between immigrants and American citizens, and the government approved of rich people’s selfishness. Labor was necessary in factories and homes, providing more job opportunities
Figure xxxx below elaborates on the rapid rate of global urbanization. It is expected that by 2019 more than 50% of world’s population will live in urban area. By year 2050 it is expected increase of urban population by 3,1 billion which means 6 billion in total . Such rapid grow of population is more predominant in developing regions of Latin America, Asia and Africa (Montgomery, 2008). This rising urban population trends poses numerous challenges and risks for cities.
Hard and dangerous working conditions, the poor had to live in horrible poorhouses, filthy neighborhoods littered with garbage and filth from the sewer, causing the public health to worsen during the urbanization. Because of this spreading of disease by overcrowding, caused many people to die. Some of the more positive changes however was the emerging middle class, where workers built their fortunes from hard work that got people from the lower class better status in society, and the growing wealth caused by new factories in the urbanization. Some of the sanitation problems however got better after the public health act in
Many people were promptly moving to the cities of the east and midwest. There was progress in the diversity of the labor force in the economy. These immigrants fulfilled the demand of the dramatic rise for factory labor. The expansion of the urban population due to the development and access to transportation helped stimulate new technological and industrial developments. By the mid-nineteenth century, reformers and architects began to call for a safer, ordered city than what was previously before (little central planning of a city).
Although highly populated cities bring together many different cultures and resources, they simultaneously lead to overcrowding. Overcrowding severely impacts society as it inevitably leads to many issues, including poverty, higher crime rates, and inadequate educational systems. Poverty Poverty is one of the most impactful social concerns caused by overcrowding, primarily because it tends to contribute to other social issues such as crime rates and poor education systems. The truth is, people from nearby developments and immigrants are attracted to well-developed cities
Urbanization is a progress to future and modernity. The urban growth has caused the infrastructure and quality of life becoming intolerable. This is in regards of housing, water, sewerage, transport, electricity, community, security, open spaces and air quality. In terms of sustainability, it depends on how dwellers manage the situation. For example, different people have different perspective such as in terms of transportation, people may choose to walk or to drive their own car.
2.1 Urbanization and river water quality Due to movement of people from rural to urban areas, physical growth of the urban areas occurs, which ultimately leads to the urbanization, Over the past several years, river systems have always been extensively altered to meet various human demands, which led to them becoming the most intensively influenced ecosystems by human activities on the Earth (Nilsson, et al., 2005 )]. ‘’Among these human activities, the influence of urbanization on river systems was the most significant, and 60% of river systems were changed profoundly because of urbanization in the world’’ as cited by (Nilsson, et al., 2005 ) Recently, a number of studies have been done to understand the effects of urbanization on river water quality. The study manifested on Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is in China, that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, and urban river water was polluted more seriously, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality (Ouyang, et al., 2006 . ).Additionally the rapid urbanization caused a series of changes to the river systems and brought about water degradation in the tuna region in china (Deng, et al., 2015).
Accordingly, Olujimi & Fashuyi, (2004) contributed that it is necessary to search for new ways of solving the housing needs of the low-income urbanites because they are the most vulnerable in terms of urban sprawl and environmental deterioration. One major limitation to the realization of the goal of improving the urban environment in most cities in Nigeria is the fact that most of the Nigerian cities lack a Master plan to guide development (Emankhu et. al. 2015). Another reason is the fact that most of the planning authorities responsible for managing development suffer from the challenge of inadequate professionals and supporting staff and also up to date digitized data required to be able to effectively implement land use controls in peri-urban areas (Chiejina, 2010, para 15).