Lab report: How does the surface area affect the rate of reaction ? Introduction The rate of a chemical reaction (or reaction rate) is a calculation of the total time needed for a reaction to take place, or how quickly the reactants are transferred into products in a chemical process. This rate can be measured in two methods. The first one is to measure the rate at which the reactants are used up per unit of time, while the second method is to measure the rate at which the products are formed per unit of time. There are several factors that affect the rate of a reaction.
Record results to determine if NaHCO3 increases or decreases the pH of the water. 10. If NaHCO3 increases the pH of the water, it shows that it will increase the pH of the blood and if NaHCO3 decreases the pH of the water, it shows that it will decrease the pH of the blood. 11. Add 30ml of 0.1M HCl into a beaker containing distilled water.
Other indeterminate random error consists in the apparatus and measuring accuracy, fluctuating at half the measurement of the lowest measurements made. This was especially important in the measurement of liquids, with +/- 0.05 millilitre differences in either the Hydrogen or the distilled water. Since these two liquids get added together, the error values add to create an overall uncertainty sum. This therefore provides the ASS and solution combined an error uncertainty of +/- 0.1mL. Due to the nature of this experiment however, this error is neglect able and the general trends form with high
If the temperature, pH and enzyme concentration is kept constant then the rate of reaction will start to decrease as well as the hydrogen peroxide concentration. Aim: To investigate the effects of changing the concentration of the enzyme catalase that it has on the rate of breaking down the Hydrogen Peroxide solution. Dependant and Independent Variables: The Dependent Variables: Amount of time it takes when the bubbles start to rise till when they stop. The Independent Variable: Amount of Hydrogen Peroxide solution. The Controlled/ Fixed Variables are: • The amount of hydrogen peroxide inserted in each test tube.
Which means the traditional way of heating extraction has both quantitative and qualitative disadvantages for pectin extraction. However using both heating and ultrasound together had a much more signiﬁcant effect on the improvement of extractability, dissolution rate and degradation rate of pectin, and there existed a synergistic effect between ultrasound and heating on the extraction of pectin. Illustrated below in fig.1 shows two graphs showing the yields of pectin that was extracted with the higher power of the ultrasound and heating. In this experiment the ultrasound was set to 20
Nevertheless a high concentration of chloride ion in solution because of fully ionization of counter-ions, the solubility improved in compared with CVD. Moreover, based on previous study by Hamed et al. a change in CVD solubility could be related to ionic strength of solution. It is another important parameter in evaluating solubility of CVD and it decreases solubility (14). Ionic liquids can produce higher ionic strength in solution medium and it is a possible reason for decreasing of solubility in acidic medium whenever CVD is fully ionized.
The reaction is first order with respect to propanone and acid, and zero order with respect to iodine. This means that if a concentration of propanone or acid is increased, the rate increases as well, in liner……. However, when the concentration of iodine is changed, the rate is not affected. This is due to it’s reaction mechanism. One way the reaction to occur, is explain as following: In the rate equation k is rate constant.
Controlled Variables The variables which are controlled are the size of the beaker, the temperature and the volume of the solutions added, such as the distilled water, HCL, sodium iodide solution and the Iron (III) nitrate 9-hydrate solution. The volume must be controlled because each condition consisted of different concentrations of the reactants, the volume would differ in each one. Constant volume was kept to make sure that all conditions had the same number of moles of reactants. Reactions with smaller volumes may have reacted faster than those with larger volumes because successful collisions would occur more frequently. This was controlled by adding a sufficient amount of distilled water to each condition, so the volume stays consistent.
Collisions increase or become more violent between molecules at higher temperatures or decrease as the temperature is lowered. Some factors that influence the speed of a chemical reaction are: (1) surface area of starting reactants; (2) concentration of reactants; (3) temperatures. The particle theory states that a solute dissolved takes place at the surface of the solvent and the larger the surface area of the particle the longer it will take to dissolve. The smaller the area the faster it will
Objective: I will be combining calcium carbonate with hydrochloric acid as a case study to measure the rate of chemical reaction. This gives us the equation CaCO3 + 2HCl H2O + CaCl2 + CO2 Background Information: Several factors are already known which increase (or decrease) the rate of reaction. An increase in concentration of the acid allows for a greater number of hydrochloric acid molecules colliding into those of calcium carbonate. Although not every single particle would result in a successful reaction, increasing the number of particles will increase the total number of reactions. Another method is to increase the surface area of the solute.