In the psychoanalytic or psychodynamic model, when the ego fails to maintain the balance between id and super ego , it tries to deal with the resultant anxiety arising in the unconscious either by projecting it or, denying it , repressing it or displacing it. The normality can be achieved only by bringing the problem to the conscious level and addressing it. In learning or behavioral models, it states that abnormality happens through any of the learning processes - either classical conditioning, where an unconditional stimulus generates and unconditional response, and conditioned stimulus generates conditioned response; or operant conditioning, where a response to a stimulus act as either a reinforcer or a punisher; or social learning where a behavior is imitated just because a role model has done it and got rewarded for it. In cognitive models, the abnormal behavior is attributed to the abnormal thought process of the individual. This leads to a response in the individual which is either rewarded or punished.
Freud’s Psychosexual Development Stage Psychosexual development stage is one of Freud’s major contribution to the Psychology field. Some of the concepts were based on his earlier study- the division of mental life into id, ego, and superego. In Freud’s psychosexual theory, each stage represents the fixation of libido (Instinct energy contain in Id). A particular conflict is existed in each stage of the psychosexual theory. One may have to resolve the conflict in order to pass on to another stage.
On the other hand, Contemporary Freudian psychoanalysis consist of the diversity of perspective of Freudian psychoanalysis. It focuses on a more scientific approach. New developments in theory, research, and practice is develop. Contemporary Freudians have modified and integrated many different ideas into their technique.
Geriatric mental health is a emerging as an important public health concern. According to Word Health Organization, prevalence of depression in adults age >60 years in developed and developing countries was 0.5 million and 4.8 million respectively in 2070. Depression is a state of activity than can affect the persons thought, behavior and they felt guilty, irritable, helpless, problem with their sleeping etc.
Introduction Psychoanalyst and personality theorist, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), described anxiety as a feeling of danger and threat to which the ego must respond. Even though the original threat, emanates from the psychic energy of other parts of the personality, id and superego, nonetheless, a protection or defense must be launched. “The ego must reduce the conflict between the demands of the id and the strictures of society or the superego” (Schultz & Schultz, 2013). It is the ego that decides the best way to satisfy the impulses of the id and superego, choosing one or two defense mechanisms to deploy within its’ behavior.
Sigmund Freud was the founder of Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic psychological approaches. He discovered the unconscious, the complexity of human ego, and many other psychological theories (BMJ, 1936). The purpose of the therapy was to bring repressed thoughts or conflicts into consciousness, thus helping the patient gain insight into the processes of his/her unconscious.
Important concepts in psychodynamic approach to leadership include e.g. the family of origin, individuation, dependence and independence, regression and the shadow self. These concepts come from psychoanalysis and psychiatry and can sometimes be abstruse and not easily understood. That is the reason that there have been attempts to make psychodynamic theory more accessible. The psychodynamic approach emphasizes the idea that people gain their initial experiences with leadership from the day they are born. Under or over gratified at any stage the child may become fixated and this could affect adult behaviour.
He also has Ego on one of his structure. Carl Jung’s structure of personality; He believed that each of us is motivated not only by repressed experiences but also in certain emotionally toned experiences that we inherit from our ancestors. His theory includes Archetypes are thought forms of the collective unconscious and predispositions to perceive the world in certain ways. In his Nature and Structure of Personality, the main systems are the ego, the persona unconscious with it complexes; and the collective unconscious and its archetypes. There are four types of archetypes, the persona, shadow, the anima and animus, and the self.
The emotional and behavioural consequences (C) of an activating event (A) is mediated by the beliefs (B) that the client has of the event. Hence, disputing (D) these irrational beliefs would cause an effect (E) leading to new feelings (F) and behaviours. Choice theory and “total behaviour” is at the heart of Reality therapy. “Total behaviour” is made up of an individual’s acting, thinking, feeling and physiology. The clients make choices about the way they express total behaviour, although the choices may sometimes be ineffective in fulfilling their needs.
Word association discloses complexes - collections of often repressed and related unconscious associations, impulses or ideas that cause a habitual pattern of behaviour or thought of a person (Mitchell, n.d.). The Word Association Test devised by Jung was an experimental method which provided an objective basis for some of Freud’s ideas, to identify complexes Jung used a tool called the psychogalvanometer (Lu, 2012). Psychogalvanometers as explained by Jung (1947) measure skins resistance of a miniscule electrical current, Jung further states that a persons general mood and immediate emotional reactions influence and alter the electrical resistances magnitude. Causes of skin resistance influences and changes can be attributed to altering levels of cortical arousal. Transference as mention by Sanders (1989) is a useful way of attuning to the clients progress.
Fundamentally, these ideas have emphasised how delusions and hallucinations can occur when atypical experiences that are shared with the majority of the people, are potentially perceived in a way that has great and intimidating personal importance (Tai & Turkington,
Notwithstanding strong proof for CBT 's viability and broad selection, the ways by which it is functional in the treatment of depression are not clear so far (Hollon et al., 2006) (Longmore, Worrell, 2007). Cognitive behavioral models deal with the part of human behaviors and thoughts through the development, support, and also, treatment of depression. Beck, Rush, Shaw, and Emery 's cognitive model which was developed in 1979, proposes that thoughts that are dysfunctional, core views, and data preparing predispositions are precursor to and increment hazard for wretchedness, and that CBT treats depression by evolving these. Behavioral segments of CBT (Beck et al., 1979) and behavioral actuation (Hopko, Lejuez, Le Page, Hopko, and McNeil, 2003) (Martell, Addis, and
There are many myths and misunderstandings surrounding common perceptions of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). While some psychologists disagree about treatment, others deny that the disorder exists at all. However, based on accounts of real clients and their counselors, it is evident that DID is a very real mental illness that in many cases can be successfully treated. In order to separate fact from fiction it is important to understand what DID is and how it affects people.
Through experimentation, Beck developed new methods for patients to identify and change their negative thoughts into something more realistic. Since then, cognitive therapy has grown and expanded (Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy). The main technique that cognitive therapists use for helping patients is gentle questioning over the thought processes
One of history’s well known and most influential psychologist was Sigmund Freud. He founded the study of Psychoanalysis, which is the study of the “unconscious mind”. He also did other studies such as dream interpretations and repression. However, up to this day some of Freud’s theories are controversial in our world today. Freud wrote a book called “Group Psychology & the Analysis of the Ego” where he argues and investigate group behavior is psychoanalysis.