In the 1950’s, Albert Ellis developed one of the earliest cognitive-based psychotherapies, which he called Rational Emotive Therapy. Ellis developed his theory after growing frustrated with the inefficient and indirect nature of psychoanalysis, Ellis was a student of the school of thought. Aaron Beck was developing his Cognitive Therapy during the same time and published his work in the 1960’s. Beck being a student of psychoanalysis as well, became disillusioned with the psychoanalytic approach of looking into the
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY: ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY: Albert Ellis (1913-2007) was a psychoanalyst who has growing dissatisfaction towards it. But he was interested in learning behavior related therapy. Albert Ellis, Aaron Beck, Donald Meichenbaum were indulged in writing treatment for chronically ill and severely stressed patient using cognitive therapy. But it ended up with behavior therapy techniques combined with cognitive therapy which were prominent in that era. That’s how Cognitive Behavior Therapy came to practice.
Besides that, filtering also can affect interpersonal communication. At this juncture, the sender manipulates the information that he or she communicates to the receiver. The purpose of filtering is to shape the message in order to make it sounds more favorable to the receiver. Filtering information may deceive the receiver into thinking into something favorable and the disappointment may be upsetting if they found out that information has been sifted. The next is message
The psychodynamic approach to leadership has its roots in Sigmund Freud´s (1938).Emotionally disturbed individuals and psychological theories of personality development form the basis of psychodynamic approach. One branch of psychodynamic theory is called psychohistory, which attempts to explain the behaviour of famous historical figures (in text citation Kets de Vries 1999). This approach gives importance making leader obtain good understanding on personality of oneself and to give importance and also encourages the group members to understand their personalities. This makes the team members to understand their reactions to the leader and each other. Important concepts in psychodynamic approach to leadership include e.g.
Within our heads, feelings get us to act a certain way. The subconscious mind uses feelings as tools to guide our actions. The real you - the conscious you - is guided by these feelings. Such powerful feelings can be led astray, especially in the modern world thus leading to problems. Seeing pleasure and other feelings as an end unto themselves can magnify the damage, or lead to frustration, excessive worry, or depression when certain levels of happiness are not attained.
He originally called it non-directive, because he felt that the therapist should not lead the client, but rather be there for the client while the client directs the progress of the therapy. So, he changed the name to client-centered. Rogers identified six conditions that are required for success in client centered therapy: There is psychological contact (a relationship) between the client and the therapists. The client is emotionally upset, in a state of incongruence. The counselor is genuine and aware of their own feelings.
Another one is related to the nature of well-being. While hedonism thinks pleasure is constituent of well-being’s nature and all sources of well-being are reducible to pleasure, the theory of authentic happiness claims that pleasure is just one of the sources of well-being. Authentic happiness theory makes two objections regarding the hedonist definition of the nature of
There are many reasons behind the act of manipulation. The manipulator needs to get something purposeful or get a feeling that they have to advance their own causes or plans - no matter what the cost to others they want powerful control of their relation with others. Maybe power over others increases their self-esteem and confidence. It is also possible that person does not have the social skills or any talent to gain what is needed by those traditional means. Sometimes the Psychological Manipulators are psychopaths who are unable to understand the feelings of themselves and others as well.