These theories support the main assumptions that crime is a choice and will not occur if the opportunity is absent and rewards are diminished. Routine activity theory. The routine activity theory takes for granted that there are many motivated offenders. Crime rate variance thus depends on the supply of suitable targets and available guardians (Cohen & Felson, 1979). This theory supports the situational crime prevention theory that crime is a choice and can be deterred through the removal of suitable targets or guardianship.
They want to make sure when punishing an immoral act, there is benefit to society. Shaw says this because utilitarianism does give established laws and reasoning behind them. Shaw also says that Utilitarians say that our system of punishment as it functions, succeeds in rehabilitating many convicts and discourages them from future mistakes. his reasons for saying this. I think that Utilitarians favor exploring the alternatives because doing something to someone, even a criminal, who has committed a heinous crime, morally wrong, and two wrongs do not make a right, it is setting the wrong view for society.
Retributivism justifies that punishment is payback for crime and its main goal is to give the offender their just deserts. We will first look into the idea of how we treat people as they deserve. According to Rachels, “Moral judgments about what to do frequently depend on considerations about what will happen as a result of our actions.” (Rachels, 1997). People deserve to be treated the same way they treat others. Rachels has also mentioned that people can control their fates by the way they treat others.
Just deserts claims that it is the offender’s choice to commit a crime, using the classical theory founded by Cesare Beccaria that states, “It asserts that a person is a rational individual with the free will to make a moral choice whether or not to engage in conduct known to be prohibited” (Starkweather, 1991, p.855). The offender made his choice and therefore must be punished for his act of crime. However, just deserts fails to acknowledge that factors in a child’s upbringing can affect their life choices as an adolescence and adult. As noted by Alley, Minnis, Thompson, Wilson and Gillberg (2014), adults who were “psychically, sexually, and emotionally abused as children were three times more likely than were non-abused adults to act violently as adults” (p.290). Consequently, giving punitive sentences and failing to help them psychologically will not help offenders when they are released back into the community.
When deciding the best time and place to commit a crime, perpetrators think through these elements precisely. Since they wish to avoid detection, criminals will frequently blend in with the crowd. If a criminal is going to steal from someone and sees a law enforcement officer around, he or she is less likely to commit that crime to avoid trouble. Routine Activities Theory argues that crime is a routine function of peoples’ lives which white collar crime can be used to dispute this
Similarly there is situational crime prevention. Situational crime prevention looks more at the role of opportunity in both causing and preventing crime and believes that making choice of crime less attractive will decrease crime. This theory states that the nature of situation can affect their choices to break the law and that there
The core of the rational choice theory can often be challenged amongst several courses of encounters, people typically do according to what they consider to result in the best inclusive outcome. A white collar crime is committed to make profits, they are not the acts of madmen or irrational people. They are rational acts that often require planning and careful
In allocation models there needs to be taken into consideration other aspects of crime, such as behavioral and physical characteristics of communities so that there can be a more appropriate understanding of the crime itself and find ways of how to prevent criminals from doing the crime in lieu of just hoping that there will be an officer nearby that can get to crime scene on time to halt the crime or hoping to discourage criminals by making them believe that police is omnipotent (Kennedy, Caplan & Piza, 2011, pg. 340). Another disadvantage of crime prevention model is that its calculations are based off assumption that crime occurs randomly, which will make the results inaccurate (Fritsch et al., 2009, pg. 35). One of the advantages of the crime prevention allocation model is that it can at least provide police administrators with an idea of where crime is being concentrated, however there is no evidence that concentration of crime will necessarily lead to more crime; it just means that crime will most likely happen there but it might also not happen at that location at all and happen somewhere else (Kennedy, Caplan & Piza, 2011, pg.
The lineup should be organized in a way so that no specific person stands out in comparison. The faces provided should match the witness’ description of the perpetrator rather than the suspect. Rather than giving a long time for the witness to ponder, construct new descriptions of the perpetrator, and thus choose the one they believe seems the most suspicious, they should be given just a few seconds so they must rely on their intuition. This is the speeded confidence procedure, in which they also rate their confidence on the answer chosen. Overall, although eyewitness testimonies have been suggested to be very unreliable, by using these techniques and procedures, the validity of the testimonies can be improved and it can be changed to include minimal bias.
Both, classical and positivist theory exam and interpret the basic motion of human behaviour in collaboration to criminality. In the past, classical theory framed their research on how crime rates are influence by the alternative outcome outside of the criminal justice system, such as biological, psychological, and social factors, which at a similar point positivism assumed the close evidence but differentiation in punishment certainty and severity of criminal behaviour could not deter the variables of the positivist theory. (Rose
Both sides will carefully weigh the strength of their case and decide whether it is prudent to go to trial. The prosecution may also consider the publicity surrounding the case and whether there is public pressure to prosecute that particular defendant to the full extent of the law. The defense will consider the individual defendant’s desire to go to trial and the seriousness of the potential sentence. The Pros of Plea Bargaining For the defendant, the most significant benefit to plea bargaining is to take away the uncertainty of a criminal trial and to avoid the maximum sentence. Society also benefits from plea bargaining since the agreements lessen court congestion and free up prosecutors to handle more cases.
The criminals who think they can get away with their crimes, also think that they will not be executed if convicted. The way to stop people from committing horrific acts is to not say how bad the punishment will be, but to have a more effective police force laying down the
There are loads of theories on crime and why people commit them. If I had to pick a favorite one I would pick rational choice theory. Rational choice theory definition is the view that people behave as they do because they believe that performing their chosen actions has more benefits and less costly than living a legal life. That is, people make rational choices based on their goals, and those choices govern their behavior.
Punishing individuals for wrongdoing is an ethical issue that is still current in modern day society. It can be argued that we need punishment for various different reasons. Without punishment, crimes would not be illegal and it would be hard to differ between what is right and what is morally wrong. Punishment highlights the need to focus on the consequences of our actions and show us what could happen if we go against the law. Punishment has the ability to make criminals better individuals through deterrence and rehabilitation.