This is a disease that is caused by scarring of lung tissue over time due to an unknown reason. The increase in fibrotic tissue decreases lung compliance and reduces the amount of volume lungs can accommodate. Pulmonary fibrosis also decreases gas diffusion
Decreased Cardiac Output Vera (2013) asserted that decreased cardiac output may be related to valvular defects, altered myocardial contractility, and alterations in a person's heart rate and rhythm, and electrical conduction. This may also be evidenced by diaphoresis, extra heart sounds, increased heart rate, chest pain, edema, and decreased urine output (Vera, 2013). Ultimately, the patient is expected to display vital signs with acceptable limits, and he is also expected to have decreased episodes of dyspnea and angina, and a reduced cardiac workload (Vera, 2013). Deficient Knowledge Vera (2013) believed that deficient knowledge may be related to how a patient lacks understanding about the relationship of cardiac function and failure. This is evidenced by questioning and recurrent episodes of heart failure.
Blood tests and a computed tomography (CT) scan quickly revealed this was not the case. However, blood tests showed signs of hyponatremia. Too much water intake may lead to acute hyponatremia Hyponatremia is a medical situation caused by unusually low levels of sodium - lower than 134 millimoles per liter. Acute hyponatremia, which develops in with in 2days, is regarded an emergency, as it can have fatal neurological outcomes. Seriously low levels of sodium can result in cerebral edema with enhanced levels of intracranial pressure and brain herniation.
Left Circumflex Artery 3. Right Coronary Artery. When these arteries are narrowed, the blood flow and oxygen circulation is forced to stop causing your body to have less movement. This is a very dangerous disease due to the fact that when the blood clot occurs in the body, your heart may stop pumping blood and inhaling/exhaling oxygen which leads to certain heart attacks and/or death.
This case highlights the importance of recognizing anaphylactic shock as an acute medical emergency case and must be treated accordingly before it turns into a never-ending-nightmare. INTRODUCTION Anaphylactic shock is an allergic reaction which is
When the blockage is temporary or partial, angina (chest pain or pressure) may occur. When the blockage completely and suddenly cuts off the flow of blood, the result is myocardial infarction. Congenital defects and spasms of a coronary artery may also block blood flow. There is evidence that infection from organisms such as chlamydia bacteria may be responsible for some cases of coronary artery disease. A number of major contributing factors increase
Removal of the endotracheal tube need to be planned before intubate patient because it needs precise management and observation to wean the patients in order to extubate them and avoid re-intubation. One of the parameters to monitor patient before extubation is cuff leak test. Cuff leak test measure the air leak of the inflated cuff in the endotracheal tube. If the air leak exceed than 20 cm H2o, the intubated patient predicted to be have post-extubation stridor. There are many methods to treat post-extubated patients.
COPD is referred to both chronic bronchitis and emphysema, the symptoms of COPD are persistent coughing with mucus, shortness in breath, and tightness in the chest, the treatment for COPD is medication and a change in lifestyle, oxygen therapy . Next emphysema is caused by cigarette smoking and other toxins such as industrial chemicals, in developing countries, the smoke that's caused by cooking or heating can cause emphysema. Even though smoking is a huge contributor to emphysema there are minor risk factors such as, a low body weight, child respiratory disorders, an exposure to cigarette smoke, air pollution/smog, and dust(mineral dust, cotton dust), also genetics can a lead cause to emphysema, for instance a close relative of someone with emphysema can or could get the disease themselves. There are three different morphological types of emphysema, centriactinare, panacinar, and paraseptal. Centriacinar emphysema is a form that is connected with long term cigarette smoking and it involves the upper half of a person's lungs, it beings at the respiratory bronchioles and spreads
As for ACE inhibitors they serve to primarily relax the blood vessels. This substance will cause blood vessels to narrow and increase the blood pressure. The ACE inhibitors side effects often include lightheadedness, joint pain, or skin rashes. ACE inhibitors also have a common side effect of a really dry cough, which makes it hard for patients to speak. The third most common medication used for heart disease is Angiotensin Receptor Blockers which will help patients by lowering blood pressure and helping in preventing blood vessels from constricting (narrowing them).
Thus, the use of morphine could be reserved for patients with pulmonary oedema or persistent severe chest pain after the administration of drugs that favorably alter myocardial oxygen supply and demand while waiting for timely reperfusion. Prospective, randomized, clinical trials are needed to determine whether and how morphine should be administered to patients with chest pain and
Holly Weiss SC-131 Unit 7 Acidosis and Alkalosis Assignment The normal pH value for the body fluids is between pH 7.35 and 7.45. When the pH value of body fluids is below 7.35, the condition is called acidosis, and when the pH is above 7.45, it is called alkalosis. Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs cannot remove all of the carbon dioxide the body produces. This causes body fluids, especially the blood, to become too acidic. Some causes include obstructive sleep apnea, diseases of the chest, airways and the nerves.