Perhaps giving animals the likeness of a machine is to far. However, the concept of animals only being able to learn from experience and not from teaching the way humans do helps serperate the two parties and further push the idea that we are different and should not hold the same rights. Another argument used by the supporters of animal testing is the notion of voluntary consent. Human beings have the mental capacity to personally volunteer themselves for experimentation for the advancement of modern medicine if they so desired. Animals, on the other hand, lack this mental capacity.
The Social Learning Theory Overview Shameka Price CCJ4014: Criminological Theory The University of Florida March 11, 2018 Shameka Price CCJ4014: Criminological Theory March 11, 2018 The Social Learning Theory Overview There 's a old quote that says, "Be careful who your friends are because you will pick up their bad traits." Many different factors can influence our learning. At some point in our lives, we have learned by observing the behaviors of others. Observation can play a very important role in determining what and how we learn. It can have positive or negative effects on one 's development and behavior, especially in children.
There are instances in Animal Farm when the spin of information avails to build a more preponderant sense of community amongst the animals, heightening their sense of kinship and the notion that they are accomplishing the goals that they first set out to achieve in ousting Mr. Jones. This occurs most efficaciously when the animals’ spirits are at their lowest, such as during the rigorous winter when supplies are dwindling and morale is down. Squealer engenders statistics that contradicts the authenticity of their situation by proving that they are much better off. His figures ‘prove’ “that they lived longer, that a more astronomically immense proportion of their adolescent ones survived infancy, and that they had more straw in their stalls and suffered less from fleas. The animals believed every word of it” (33).
Basically, operant conditioning is a simple feedback system: If a reward or reinforcement follows the response to a stimulus, then the response becomes more probable in the future. For example, leading behaviourist B.F. Skinner used reinforcement techniques to teach pigeons to dance and bowl a ball in a mini-alley. This theory is relatively simple to understand because it relies only on observable behaviour and describes several universal laws of behaviour. Its positive and negative reinforcement techniques can be very effective– such as in treatments for human disorders including autism, anxiety disorders and antisocial behaviour. Behaviourism is often used by teachers who reward or punish student behaviours.
Giving up is a decision people can make in the face of stress; Martin Seligman examined this idea in his original research experiment in 1992. In his experiment, animals were subjected to electric shock where escape was not possible. Following this initial ‘trapped’ experience animals were given the opportunity to learn a response, which would allow them to escape the electric shocks. What Seligman found was that these animals had become so dispirited and apathetic that they did not try to escape the shock even when it was possible. Comparably, a human experiment was conducted using inescapable sound and findings were similar to the animal experimentation.
Singer accuses humanity of thinking this way if animals’ rights are not given fair representation. Non-human animals can suffer, that is, we all have the same interest in living: Singer comes to this conclusion by rationalizing that all other species are sentient and can suffer, suffering is bad, therefore, non-human animals should be included in daily-decisions for a utilitarian. Sentience is defined as the capacity to feel meaning they can feel suffering. For instance, when humans adopt pets and keep them in their homes we treat them as members of the household respecting them as equals: The pets return love and appreciation. In an alternative case, if the owner suddenly became aggressive and harmed the pet putting its safety at risk, the animal would naturally defend itself against the hostility.
“Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity” (Martin Luther King Jr.). People’s ignorance can contribute to political and social oppression. In the book Animal Farm, by George Orwell, the animals are attempting to work together to break free from mankind. What the animals on the farm don’t realize is that they are becoming persecuted due to the fact that they have very little knowledge, they are being tricked by the pigs, and they had not been willing to connect the idea that the pigs are becoming more like humans soon enough. The animals on the farm had very little knowledge.
The animals’ aspiration to create a perfect society without humans and corruptions is demolished due to their struggle to restrain soaring greed for privileges through consolidating power, deceiving and harming one another. In spite of their efforts, their ultimate goal of creating such society remains only as a dream. Thus, it can be safely concluded that the animals’ resemblement of negative human attitudes has contributed to the destruction of their utopic
Adults play a major role in the conditioning and the development of their character. Observational learning is an integral part of child rearing although that can be good and bad as children may involuntarily learn some of the parents bad traits, Just like Albert Banduras doll experiment where