An optimum pH and temperature were found for the enzyme, outside of this optimum the reaction rate would be lower. The correct name is the catalase enzyme. The EC number is: EC 188.8.131.52 . The biological function of the enzyme is catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. It is a very important enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS).
The enzyme then breaks apart the bonds in a substrate and then leaves unchanged after the reaction. The enzyme this lab will be looking at today is the catalase enzyme. Catalase is found among almost all living organisms. The catalase which this lab uses will be a 1% catalase solution but an example of natural catalase is the catalase found in the liver. Catalase reacts with hydrogen peroxide, binding onto it and breaking it down into the less toxic water and oxygen.
Figure: (www.bbc.co.uk) 2. pH – Enzymes function most effectively over a particular pH range which is quite often a narrow range. The optimum pH value is the most
As known, some thermophiles are industrially valuable because they secrete kinds of bioenzymes and biofuels. It should be recognized that the process of enzyme production and carbohydrate degradation is possibly the process of environmental adaptation. Extremophiles is one of the most inspiring and wonderful organisms created with very special characteristics not shared with any other organisms available. They can resist high and low pressure, high and low temperatures, high radiation, high saltiness and high dryness. Thermophile, type of Extremophile, those, which are capable of very extremely high temperatures that other organisms cannot tolerate 41 and 122 °C (106 and 252 °F) and have special strategies to out go and survive including different and unusual lipid membranes and Chaperonin proteins that increase in high temperature to help fold the misfolded proteins.
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate. All enzymes are under the class of protein biomolecule. Amino acids are the basic units that are combined to make up an enzyme.
Catalyse Enzyme Experiment. Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up chemical reactions which go on inside living things. Without them reactions would be so slow that life would grind to halt. These are examples that can decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide.
The activities of most enzymes follow a bell-shaped curve, increasing from zero in the strong acid region up to a maximum value which is identified at the optimum pH. Enzymes display their highest activity at their respective optimum conditions as seen in figure 2, the optimum pH is 6.5 since it has the highest absorption peak on the curve, and then decreasing to pH 8.5 which is the the strong alkaline region (Figure 2). The state of protonation is responsible for this behaviour, the protonation of one functional group promotes the catalytic activity, while protonation of another essential group breaks it down. In this case two conventional titration curves, an increasing and a decreasing one, form the bell-shaped curve as seen in figure 2. A pH balance of 0-6 is acid, a pH balance of 7 is neutral, and a pH balance above 7.5-14 is alkaline.
e.g isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme acts on isocitrate by oxidation followed by decarboylation Isocitrate is converting into alpha-ketoglutarate with the help of isocitrate dehydrogenase. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF ENZYME ACTION 1.Effect of nzyme concentration The rate of enzyme is directly propotional to the concentration of enzyme provided that the condition of the reaction remains constant and sufficient substrate is supplied. 2. Effect of substrate concentration The rateof reaction increases as the substrate concentration incteases until a certain point (Vmax) at which the reaction attains maximal velocity. Any Increase in substrate concentration after this point cause further increase in the rate of reaction because at Vmax enzyme moleclues are completed saturated with substrate molecules.
Not only do white blood cells help your body fight off disease, illness, and infection, but they contain granules, which consists of enzymes, that can help fight your body against unknown items like viruses of bacteria particles (Ballard, 33). While some white blood cells surround this unknown item, killing it, some white blood cells develop a "memory" of that unknown item, so they can have a swift attack on them (Ballard, 33). In addition to plasma, red blood cells, and white blood cells, there are platelets. Platelets are disc-shaped cell fragments that prevent a great amount of blood loss from cuts by developing platelet "plugs," as their granules contain chemicals that make blood clot (Ballard, 33). What is blood pressure?
Abstract This experiment showed that temperature, concentration and pH all affect the rate of enzyme reaction differently. Enzymes are very important in organisms and therefore understanding how and why they work the way they do in specific conditions is crucial. The results showed that an increase in temperature would also increase the reaction rate, until a temperature that was too high, where the enzymes began to denature and therefore the rate of reaction was slowed down. As concentration was increased, the reaction rate continued to increase. The higher the concentration, the more rapid increase in reaction rate occurred.
An enzyme is s specialized protein made to catalyze a chemical reaction. Enzymes form a complex with a substrate and break the substrate down to chemical products far more quickly than the random chemical reactions that would have occurred without the enzyme. In this experiment we were testing to see how different factors of enzymes would effect the rate that they broke H202 into H20+02. Measuring the amount of O2 with guaiacol to see how orange the solution turned showing the rate of the enzyme break down. The hypothesis of this experiment was supported in some of the results that came from each factor experiment.
Introduction: Enzymes are needed for survival in any living system and they control cellular reactions. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering the energy needed for molecules to begin reacting with each other. They do this by forming an enzyme-substrate complex that reduces energy that is required for a specific reaction to occur. Enzymes determine their functions by their shape and structure. Enzymes are made of amino acids, it 's made of anywhere from a hundred to a million amino acids, each they are bonded to other chemical bonds.