The reflux process lasted an hour after which the generated mixture was separated by a separatory funnel. The sulfuric acid functioned as the acid catalyst and worked to protonate the carbonyl carbon of the benzoic acid compound leading to a more reactive nucleophile. Protonation of the carbonyl carbon allows for the generation of a tetrahedral intermediate structure composed of both the benzoic acid and the methanol. The removal of water from the tetrahedral intermediate leads to tautomerized structure that becomes methyl benzoate when a loss of hydrogen is registered in the tautomerized oxygen.After the hour of refluxing was done, the resultant mixture was separated into an organic layer and an aqueous layer by means of a separatory funnel. The separation process was aided by a diethyl ether solvent the usage of which saw the aqueous layer to be the bottom layer of the refluxed
Step four is basically just where water can now enter and bind to the active site through hydrogen bonding, which is between the hydrogen atoms of water and the Histidine-57 nitrogen. The fifth step is the step where the water and oxygen make a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the acyl-enzyme intermediate. This pushes the carbonyl’s electrons onto the carbonyl carbon, while the Histidine-57 takes one proton from the
Glycolysis, or anaerobic respiration, is the first phase of sugar breakdown at the cellular level. Simple sugars such as glucose, fructose, and galactose are converted to a three carbon compound called pyruvate. Because this process occurs in the cytosol and does not require oxygen, it is termed anaerobic. The net energy yield from anaerobic respiration is two molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate is converted to lactic acid, which is a metabolic dead end.
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
Squalene undergoes a two-step cyclization to yield lanosterol catalyzed by sequalene mono-oxygenase and sequalene 2, 3 epoxidase enzymes. Sequalene mono oxygenase is the second committed step in cholesterol biosynthesis and lead to the formation squalene 2, 3 epoxide. This enzymatic reaction require supernatant protein factor (SPF) and NADPH as a cofactor to introduce molecular oxygen as an epoxide at the 2, 3 position of squalene. The activity of supernatant protein factor itself is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation (Singh et al., 2003). Through a series of 19 additiona lreactions, lanosterol is converted to cholesterol.
The process of cellular respiration, cells extract the energy stored in the glucose molecule (Campbell & Reece, 2005). The molecule is a sugar that provides major fuel for cellular to work. But the carbon skeleton works on the row material for synthesis of all different verities of small organic molecules. For example amino acids and fatty acids. Such sugar molecules that are not immediately used are incorporated into disaccharides and polysaccharides.
Glycolysis is the primary stage of the chain reactions in breaking down carbohydrates over endothermic that means consuming in heat and an exothermic reaction that means providing off heat reactions and catabolism. Expending an instance of one glucose particle, primarily 2 ATP particles be required to be hydrolyzed usage of water to split something addicted to tiny pieces into ADP and energy. A high-energy phosphate from ATP, creating glucose-6-phosphate, motivates the carbon backbone of glucose it has shown as ring
This organism was cultured under solid-state fermentation for 72 h using wheat bran as the substrate. After 72 h, crude enzyme was extracted from the culture medium. The fibrinolytic enzyme was purified from the crude sample by various steps: ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, ion exchange chromatography, and casein-agarose affinity chromatography. All purification steps were performed at 4°C until otherwise stated. The crude enzyme was precipitated at 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate, and the protein was collected by centrifugation (10,000×g for 10 min).
Two of the polynucleotides are twisted to create the shape of a double helix. It is made up of four nitrogenous bases, which are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, and Cytosine. Adenine always pairs up with Thymine, and Guanine always pairs up with Cytosine. They also have a phosphate group, and a sugar called deoxyribose. The phosphate group had a phosphate atom and four oxygen atoms.