While the SNS directs the movements of the skeletal muscles, the ANS regulates involuntary processes such as the heart beating, breathing, blood pressure, and blood sugar level. When compared to other animals’ brains, the human brain is a more complex central nervous system. The reason for this is due to the proficiency of the human brain to continuously develop both in the structure and function of numerous cells in it as a responsive mechanism towards new incoming information, experiences, and even shock, which is also known as brain plasticity. (Sanders
INTRODUCTION Muscle tissue is one of the four primary tissue types consisting elongated muscle cells that are highly specialized for carrying out certain responsibilities. Muscles are responsible for movement of different parts of the body; posture; respiration; production of body heat; communication; constriction of organs and vessels and contraction of heart. General properties of muscles: Contractility is the ability of muscle to shorten forcefully although its shorten forcefully, it lengthens passively. Excitability is the capacity of muscle to respond to a stimulus. Often the stimulus is from the nerves that we consciously control.
Syn : means together. 2. haptein : to clasp . means to keep holding something together . (4) CHEMICAL SYNAPSE: DEFINITION: Chemical synapses are defined as : Biological junctions through which neurons signals can be exchanged To each other and to non neuronal cells such as in the muscles and The glands and they allow the neurons to form circuit in central nervous System. They are thus very important biological computations that underlie perceptions and thoughts.
The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones. The first three glands are all located in the brain. The hypothalamus gland connects the endocrine system to the nervous system and also regulates when
Once the sound waves have rounded the corner of the ear canal, they cause the eardrum to vibrate, stimulating the ossicles of the middle ear (tiny bones called the malleus, incus and stapes – otherwise known as the hammer, anvil and stirrup). These ossicles transmit the sound waves to the cochlea. (Bailey, 2013). The cochlea is a fluid-filled structure in the middle ear. The sound waves are translated to fluid waves in the cochlea that are then sensed by nerves connected to fine hairs that float in the fluid and is then sent on to the brain for interpretation.
Concept Map 2: Neuroscience Neuroscience is a very complex study and is classified as a scientific field of study that studies the nervous system and how it relates to mental and behavior processes. Since neuroscience is the study of the nervous system after all, many psychologist like to study it because our nervous system is what controls us. It spreads the messages from our brain to the rest of our body. This would be why the nervous system is defined as the way our body communicates with itself through the use of neurons. The neurons are what transports the information throughout our body.
In the white matter area of the medulla oblongata contains ascending and descending nerve tracks which cross the brain and spinal cord. The protrusions in the white matter forms the pyramids with corticospinal nerve connect the cerebrum with spinal cord which controls the movement of voluntary muscles. These nerve tracks cross the left side to the right side of the body. The medulla regulates the force and heart rate through the cardiovascular system and medullary rhythmic area of respiratory center controls the respiratory processes. Other functions are controlling reflexes for vomiting, swallowing, sneezing and coughing and hiccupping.
The sense of touch is the most perplexing of the five basic senses; some neurologists believe we have more. The touch sense, also known as somatosensation, refers to the body’s ability to interact with the environment, interpret external factors, and distinguish pain from pleasure through experience which allows the body to respond appropriately to various sensations. The sense of touch differs from the other senses of sight, sound, smell, and taste because it is not confined to one specific location. Instead, it occurs all over the body. The primary organ that the body uses for the sense of touch is the skin, the largest organ of the body as it covers the entirety of it.
This pathway originates in a region of the midbrain called the ventral tegmental area and extends to the nucleus accumbens, one of the brain’s key reward areas. Besides reward, this circuit also regulates emotions and motivation. In the normal communication process, dopamine is released by a neuron into the synapse (the small gap between two neurons), where it binds to specialized proteins called dopamine receptors on the neighboring neuron. By this process, dopamine acts as a chemical messenger, carrying a signal from neuron to neuron. Another specialized protein called a transporter removes dopamine from the synapse to be recycled for further use.8 Drugs of abuse can interfere with this normal communication process.
INTRODUCTION Anatomy and Physiology of Angiocentic Glioma The most complex part of the body is the brain. It controls muscles movement, behavior, senses and all other functions of the body. The gray matter or cerebral cortex in the brain is the place where all the information is processed. Meanwhile, the cerebral lobe is the main source of intellectual activities. The nerve fibers in the two hemisphere of the cerebral lobe cross over and causing the right side of the cerebrum to control left side of the body and left side of the cerebrum to control right side of the body.
The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidney and consist of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. Each conducts a different function. The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland and produces steroids such as aldosterone which reabsorbs sodium and releases potassium. The adrenal cortex is vital to sustain life. The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland and produces adrenaline hormones such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that are used in sudden stress
The PNS contains somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls the function of internal organs like your heart, stomach, cardiac muscle, and your glands. The autonomic nervous system has an effect on the organs, muscles, and glands are all done voluntary. The autonomic nervous system can change the body temperture, send extra blood to a particular area, slow your heartbeat, and pull the stomach secretion. The somatic nervous system is made up of sensory organs and nerves that connects to the skin, also that connects to all the skeleton muscles.
The nervous system has many significant functions such as direction of your movements, focusing of the eyes, pain sensory, contraction of the muscles allowing your heart to pump sending blood and oxygen to all your vital organs and removing harmful toxins. Your brain is the control centre of the body. The most largest and complex part of the brain is the cerebrum, the centre of learning. This controls the way you use language, feel emotions and think. It is divided into two sides which are connected together by nerve bundles called the corpus callosum.
Caution: Central Control Problem The brain controls everything the body does. The spinal cord carries messages between the body and the brain. Together, they make up the central nervous system (CNS). Some prescription drugs slow down, or depress, the CNS. Others speed up, or stimulate, the CNS.
Many different circumstances can cause cell injury such as being exposed to injurious stimuli, not getting the correct amount of nutrients, or being affected by an unknown outsider. There are three common forms of cell injury that occur; hypoxic injury, free radicals and reactive oxygen species injury, and chemical injury. Cells must maintain homeostasis in order to function as they are supposed to. It is important that we understand these various forms in order to understand why disease is caused. Hypoxic Injury Hypoxia is the state in which there is an insufficient amount of oxygen getting to the tissues which is the most common cause of injury to the cell.