Gerald Graff began his career as a teacher before becoming an author focused on critical theory. “Disliking Books at an Early Age” is one of his publications that focuses on the teaching of critical theory. Graff’s argument is that students should be introduced to theory early in academics because a pure reading experience is impossible. Every person brings their own experiences and questions to a text that influences it. Therefore, literary theory gives them a scholarly way to shape their readings and develop the level of “intellectualspeak” that colleges seem to require, which teaches them the skills needed to discuss literature and add to the scholarly conversation.
Francesco Petrarch is the father of Humanism because he was very smart and took influential action that laid down the foundation for humanism all together. Petrarch laid the foundation for humanism. Firstly, Petrarch was one of the wisest people of his time. Petrarch “was regarded as the greatest scholar of his age” (Britannica.com). He cascaded a lot of his wisdom into his work, most notably his poetry.
Those critical approaches are Reader-Response Criticism and Psychological (psychoanalytic) criticism. Reader-Response Criticism is as important as the author is since; readers are active participants in literary works and has his or her own opinion, understanding and image of the work read. Even though the interpretation may look similar from one person to another, nonetheless, there will always be a slight difference in how it is perceived. According to Barnet, Burto, and Cain (2011), readers are to give a response that cannot be compared to the real life. “At one extreme are those who say that our response to a work of literature should be purely aesthetic- a response to a work of art-and not the response we would have to something comparable in real life” (p. 1745).
The beauty of the literary criticism is that as a reader, you a free to choose from a variety of approaches to analyzing the literary work, consequently, the reader can expand, go beyond and understand many details about the work and the author. It also permits the reader to enhance his or her critical thinking besides giving special skills to consider the different approaches. As Casano, (n.d.) mentions: “literary criticism provides some general guidelines to help us analyze, deconstruct, interpret and evaluate”. The biographical approach focuses on the events that round the author’s life, the author childhood, studies, life experiences, family facts and any type of information related to his or her lifetime. According to Thanatassa, (2012):
The fan is primarily a reader, who might actively engage with a text by writing fan fiction. As fans are readers first, who might revisit their favorite texts again and again through reading or writing fan fictions, I primarily employ literary theories of reading and interpretation. Reader response theory offers a concept of active reading that is applicable here: it tends to emphasise reading as an activity which changes over time (Bertens 96). Hans Bertens summarizes the phenomenological position reader response criticism takes: “Since we cannot with absolute certainty know that we know the outside world, we must focus on how that world appears to our senses and is constituted by our consciousness” (96). Instead of the ‘real’ world, in studying fan fiction we look at the textual world and how readers experience and respond to
In addition, literary criticism includes narrative criticism where the goal is to understand how each author wrote in order to produce a “desired effect on the reader” (Strauss 68). For instance, Mark was encouraging believers to stay strong under persecution by showing how Jesus endured the cross. Also, Luke includes so many outsiders—non-Jews, interacting with Jesus, which causes the reader to feel included in the Gospel story or to become one who includes those who have yet to meet Jesus. Additionally, literary criticism includes point of view; meaning, “The Gospel narrators always affirm the evaluative point of view of God, who is righteous and just and loving. By contrast, Satan and his demons are deceitful, evil, and destructive” (Strauss 70).
Barthes recognize that to read the author's intention is the key mode which is make the reader interest to the interpretation of literary texts: “The explanation of a text is always sought in the man or woman who produced it, as if it were always in the end, through the more of less transparent allegory of the fiction, the voice of a single person, the author 'confiding' in us.” (143). According to Barthes, it is clear that to read a text is try to place himself in the position of the public in an effort to connect with their thoughts and
Reading resistance literature need an open mind. The reader does his or her best to understand things according to the view of the author and it is not easy for some people to agree with this point of view. Sometimes, the reader can not have a particular feeling , but the author use some descriptive words for showing emotions which he wants to present. If we study this issue carefully, we find that this issue is popular and prevalent everywhere throughout literature without taking some important points into account. Authors have a good chance and freedom to express themselves in different ways because of the open definition of resistance as if the definition of resistance literature is Specified this would limit the author’s ability to
The times that we live in heavily influence our understanding of people and the literary characters we get to know of. The Reader Response theory revolves around the central idea that the context any reader resides in, influences the reader 's understanding of and the response to characters. This is the case in 'A Doll 's House ' by Henrik Ibsen too, where, Torvald Helmer, the protagonist 's husband evokes different responses by different readers of the play. While a Victorian Era reader will sympathize with the character of Helmer as he holds a his "dignity" above all, even the woman he "loves", the modern reader of the 21st century is outraged by Helmer 's blatantly sexist remarks about a woman 's "duty." The readers ' receptions of Helmer 's character varies greatly due to the different values they believe in and their social context.
As there are many readers for a text, there are varieties of interpretations, almost equal to the number of the readers who read the text. Although some of the readers have the same attitude, there are many new attitudes toward a text during the history of a work. The present study has been concerned with a reading from the views of Said, Bhabha and Fanon. The Grass is Singing is rich sources for other interpretations, so they deserve to be analyzed and interpreted based on different approaches. Here it is presented some suggestions for those who intend to study and observe these literary works from other perspectives.