Reading is obviously one of the most crucial skills and activities in any educational setting, especially in language classes. This importance is partially due to regarding reading not only as a great origin of information and an enjoyable activity, but also as a channel of reinforcing and boosting one’s knowledge of the language (Rivers, 1981). Reading comprehension skills, according to Sanders (2001), separate the "passive" and not skillful readers from the "active" ones. Skilled readers do not merely read; they have interactions with the text. Skilled readers, for instance, anticipate what is about to take place next in a story with the use of hints given in the text, devise questions about the main idea, message, or plot of the text,and monitor understanding of the sequence, context, or characters (Sanders, 2001).
Since reading comprehension is important, so we should also be aware with some of the factors that can affect reading comprehension. Lenz also stated that reading comprehension can be affected from the quality of reading materials given to pupils (2016). What he meant here was that in some texts or passages, writers will be using some basic and simple words. However, some writers can also produce more complex reading material than others. That is why there are some cases where pupils are not able to retain meaning as they were given with complex passages.
They focus on written products. The emphasis is on expressing ideas and relaying information, usually with a unique flair that is enjoyable for the reader. The emphasis again is on lecturers and note-taking. “Traditional writing is based largely on a reduction of the integrated process of using a foreign language into sub-sets of discrete skills and areas of knowledge; it is broadly a functional procedure which focuses on skills and areas of knowledge in isolation” (Matthew, 2008).teachers evaluate the written products, judge its form and content according to set criteria. The approach to teaching writing is teacher-dominated interaction.
Graff suggests that being able to to discuss literature is a primary factor in being able to read well. He goes further on to point out that teachers that can relate to students that are intimidated by reading have a great advantage over teachers that may have forgotten what it's like to learn how to think analytically about writing, reading and intellectual
Teachers should incorporate a combination of direct instruction and the constructivist approach when teaching reading. This essay will discuss six elements of teaching students to read including oral language, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension and fluency, and ways in which teachers can deliver instruction using a balanced approach. A balanced approach to teaching reading involves explicit phonics instruction as well as world view. Traditionally students were introduced to reading with an emphasis on phonics. McBride-Chang (2004) recognised that this bottom-up approach resulted in students who are more likely to lose interest in reading due to the limited vocabulary and repetitiveness of texts they read (p.120).
These strategies can include additional elements of a balanced approach. The reading of a book aloud in a classroom setting and pointing at words as the words are spoken aloud provides students with the opportunity to see the spoken word in written context. Konza (2014, 154) notes in some research, oral language is excluded as a key element in learning to read. Although research suggests that oral language difficulties can lead to reading difficulties, therefore it is an important element. Once students understand oral language teachers can commence with working on
Reading aloud motivates students to read and provides many benefits in building vocabulary, learning the reading process in a meaningful context, modeling fluency, and simply practice how to think-aloud. In my preparation for read aloud lesson I first relied on the amount of the text and vocabulary that could possibly be accommodated for the first or second grade. I tried to choose the book that would be interesting and students of that age are able to understand it. The goal of my reading aloud class is to replenish students’ vocabulary and teach them to analyze the text. One of the requirement for read aloud text was the amount of reading.
A word recognition ability such as the explicit instruction of sight words maybe used by students who are facing problems in reading to increase their reading capacity (Alexander & Heathington (1988). Frantantoni (1999) mentioned that as good readers have a large sight word, they are different from poor readers. A largely familiar problem faced by learners through the ESL/EFL world is that of slow reading (Hamp-Lyons 1983; Cooper 1984). Logically, students all differ in their capacity to process and quickly name words. Though, this speed can depend on the amount and quality of exposures to the words (Rasinski, Blachowicz et al.
(Richards, 2008, p.19) For many teachers, teaching speaking is so important. Burns and Goh (2012, p. 1-2) claim that teachers do much efforts to help their students develop their speaking abilities. For them speaking skill is important because of three main reasons. First, all language learners should be able to communicate well with the foreign language speakers. Second, many students are good in reading and writing, but they have poor speaking and listening abilities.