Reading Comprehension: Impact Of Brainstorming

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Reading Comprehension: Impact of Brainstorming Introduction Of all language skills, reading is the most necessary for independent learning. Through reading, students can gain access of further knowledge, both about the language and about other subjects. It should be emphasized that reading comprehension is a problem that most learners of English as second language (ESL) face, because of the many variables that affect reading comprehension activities .So, some studies were conducted on readability. Venkateswarm (1995) sees readability "as a term that refers to text types of styles of writing that people find attractive and hence easier to read than other kinds of writing.” It’s believed that text complexity is behind low reading comprehension.…show more content…
Furthermore, Jacobwitz (1988) says, "reading is a process of confirming predications about meaning. It is interactive in nature; readers select appropriate cues from the text in order to fulfill their purpose '. Reading is more than a linguistic skill; it is also a general cognitive skill (Walter, 2007), Li and Wilhelm (2008) consider reading as a source of enjoyment for individuals. Finally, "Widdowson (1979) says that “reading is not a reaction to the text, but an interaction between the writer and the reader mediated through the text". The reader's prior knowledge and familiarity with the topic are main factors that determine the level of readability on which reading comprehension depends. As seen from all of these definitions, we can conclude that reading as a process which" involves the recognition of printer or written symbols which serve as stimuli for the recall of meaning built up through manipulation of concepts already possessed by the reader. Besides, it is obvious that, the reader is the one who brings meanings to the text. These meanings are built up through the past experience the reader possessed. Loew (1984),…show more content…
Brainstorming is defined as “a technique, which is used in order to stimulate the ideas available in the student's mind about a certain topic". Besides, the sessions of brainstorming are defined as "a means to get as many ideas as possible from the group taking part in a short period of time" (Ministry of Education, 1995).The definition ties in well with that provided by (Rawlinson, (1981), Ganji, H. (2005), Sharifi H.P. (2005) & Hashemi, M., Angeli &Valenides(2009) who view brainstorming as a means of getting a number of ideas from a group of people in a short time “. They then add "it is a wide- ranging, far reaching activity, and seeking to generate ideas". It should be understood that the ideas, which are suggested by the group, range for the brilliant ones to the totally wild, silly and useless ones. If we want a successful brainstorming, it should depend on the application and enforcement of some described guidelines. Osborn (1963) and Rawlinson (1981) have laid these guidelines which are (suspend judgment, free-wheeling is welcomed, quantity is wanted, and combination and improvement are sought". These four guidelines are important for applying the brainstorming technique. The session of brainstorming consists of a number of stages, which

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