Reading involves garnering knowledge, information and meaning from any literary text. Readers are encouraged to be active in constructing meaning while reading text. Thus, after reading has taken place, readers should have a clear understanding of what has been written and they will then be able to transfer information they need. However, many students still have challenges with comprehension; especially when they have to comprehend words, sentences or an entire text. If people do not understand what they read, it becomes a frustrating, pointless exercise in word calling.
Vocabulary konwledge. The reader must be able to understand the vocabulary used by the writer Text comprehension, where the reader puts together the vocabulary and different comprehension strategies to develop an understanding of the text. It allows the reader to understand the text. • skimmingto have a glance over thetest given makes the reader to gain an overall view of text. • putting together information helps the reader to keep track of what is happening in the text.
According to Ali Akbar Khansir (2012) the exact nature of help or support depends on the nature of learners, their reason for writing, and type of writing. In this approach, students are given sufficient time to write, and rewrite, to discover what they want to say and to consider intervening feedback from the teacher and peer as they attempt to bring expression closer to intention in successive drafts. The teacher intervenes throughout the composing process, rather than reacting only to the final draft. The writer is the centre of attention throughout the process and that's the reason why this approach is also called learner-centred approach. Seow (1995) (as cited in Ali Akbar Khansir (2012) argues that the process approach to teaching writing comprises four basic stages such as planning, drafting, revising, and editing.
Prediction from pictures or words is one useful strategy, so I recommend to use because it will enhance students thinking. For example, she might ask students to predict what they are going to read in the text using the title and the illustration and then students read the text and check their predictions if they were correct or not. Book covers, photographs give learners the idea of what they are going to read, in fact their brain starts predicting what they are going to read (Harmmer, 2007). Skimming which means to read quickly is also a useful strategy because it helps students to get the gist of a text (Scrivener, 2005). I think my teacher should use this strategy before asking students to read because it helps students to get the main ideas about the text, it helps students to require information that they want and to get a general sense of a topic.
Get learners to read a text aloud in different ways to demonstrate expression and reciting it. You can then take this a step further by getting them to improvise a scenario to explore how a character may feel about a certain event or situations. Role play is a good way to develop students' awareness of how dialogue is spoken when they are reading silently and it is good for word decoding.
Stage 1: The Pre-Reading Stage serves to stimulate interest and, where necessary, introduces language or concepts which the pupil may not know. Stage 2: The While-Reading Stage helps the teacher achieve the main aim by getting pupils to ‘engage with’ the text in different ways and here the teacher puts Comprehension Questions to check the attention of the students. Fig. :1 Picture showing the qualities of a good Reader. Stage 3: The Post-Reading Stage seeks to utilize the text and the meanings derived from it in order to help pupils relate to other activities that would be of interest and use to
It tends to develop the learners’ strategies as Nuttal (1962, p 23) claims that: “The intensive reading lesson is intended primarily to train students in reading strategies”. However, sometimes the learner may prefer to divide the text into parts and then read each part alone in order to comprehend it very well. In the same view, Palmer (1964) mentions that on intensive reading, the learner focuses on using the dictionary in which he has to analyze, compare and translate while reading texts. Therefore, the use of a dictionary helps the learner to progress in his language learning process. However, this may interrupt the learner’s reading speed.
The ability to construct the meaning of a text, through various strategies, is known as comprehension. For a reader to successfully comprehend a text, they must first extract the meaning of what was read, analyze it, interpret it, and make it their own. This process is interactive and strategic, because the reader is using multiple approaches to grasp the information. Connecting the new information from a text to old non-visual information from their schema is a crucial aspect of comprehension that readers must do. To make sense of the new information, the reader must integrate the material into their schema of connected information.
Skimmimng is to read superficially and skipping. Scanning is looking for information. The learner reads in details and having a critical understanding. Skimming and Scanning help the readers to recognize and evaluate relevant information in the text. Intensive reading is to read and analyze a text with a purpose; for instance from examination point of view .Extensive reading is to read something out of interest and for pleasure.
Self-monitoring It is considered essential to report about how self - monitoring helped students verify their understanding by identifying comprehension problems and finding appropriate solution during the reading task using the self- assessment protocol. Self- monitoring aims to provide learners with a plan at the moment to read, taking the stages of before, while and after the reading, also during reading they should read the strategies in order to have them in mind and solve the reading task using as many reading strategies they considered useful in their individual processes. Indeed, at the beginning learners did not have a clear idea about the process of reading they just read because it was a task. Learners reported their comprehension