Reading involves garnering knowledge, information and meaning from any literary text. Readers are encouraged to be active in constructing meaning while reading text. Thus, after reading has taken place, readers should have a clear understanding of what has been written and they will then be able to transfer information they need. However, many students still have challenges with comprehension; especially when they have to comprehend words, sentences or an entire text. If people do not understand what they read, it becomes a frustrating, pointless exercise in word calling.
The first is Students' self-concepts and the value they place on reading are critical to their success (Gambrell, Palmer, Coddling, and Mazzoni, 1996). And in a recent study of self- concept about reading and the value of reading, gender differences were identified as early as third grade. The second Choice is widely acknowledged as a method for enhancing motivation. Allowing young children to make even a minimal task choice increased learning of the task and enhanced subsequent interest in the activity (Cordova & Lepper, 1996; Iyengar & Lepper, 1999). The third is Read-aloud and discussion are effective ways to engage in mastery modeling.
Learning through DRTA strategy is based on the schema and cognitive theory because our previous knowledge is important to comprehend the text. A teacher should activate schema of the students while facilitating the reading activity so that the knowledge is retained for longer period of time. Moreover, a teacher should provide an opportunity for students to explore and experience so that students are motivated and their schemata are activated. Student activities should be based on student-centered approach in order to engage all the students actively in the classroom. When students interact with their friends while reading, it helps in their cognitive development which ultimately leads to learning.
1. Define Disciplinary Literacy (DL): Disciplinary Literacy is learning how to read, think about, write, communicate, and use information like each discipline’s expert. It involves the tasks and processes of reading, thinking, inquiring, and speaking, required to learn and develop discipline-appropriate content knowledge. 2. Define Content Area Literacy (CL): Content Area literacy is the ability to use reading and writing for the acquisition of new content in a given discipline.
Next they write letters or words they may have seen from their environment or books. Emergent writing is a process where it is necessary for the child to integrate phonological awareness (isolate individual sounds in words) print awareness (text has meaning) and language (words provide a message). Elizabeth Sulzby (1986) research determined children acquire early writing skills before they are conventional readers. Today is it understood children can express their knowledge of emergent literacy through writing as well as reading. Studies have shown students who spend more time writing are more code focused when it comes to reading.
To put it another way, to read extensively signifies reading extended texts for long periods of time, whereby the focus of attention is the meaning of the text, relative to learning the language features of it. This is why extensive reading is basically incidental learning. Virtually, reading is a significant and an everlasting source of learning. Through reading, learners can learn new vocabulary and grammatical features. Enjoyment can be the outcome of reading.
Reading has become a primary vehicle for target language input (Han & Anderson, 2009). The reading-based materials such as literary pieces and other prints that captivate students’ interests are engaging students in authentic activities. Prints help students reread and refer back to solve their problems (Dubbin and Bycina, 1991). There are several advantages using this type of materials to learn various language skills for it provides students with content that can make the lesson fun. It encourages a higher level of thinking compared to the basal level of instruction for students, predicts events and reacts to characters in stories.
For students, it is not only something that they need in work, it is a must that students have to memorize it. Word wall is really one of the effective way to make students memorize the words. Hence, word wall is actually help the students in memorizing as often as they see it every day and use them in learning process whether written or
"Strategic readers feel confident that they can monitor and improve their own reading so they have both knowledge and motivation to succeed (Peter Afflerbach, David Pearson & Scott G. Paris, 2008)" as cited in Hanim (2013:3) Evchevarria, et al (2012: 315) states that strategies are a "mental process and plans that people use to help them comprehend, learn, and retain new information. These strategies will support the learners to read well". From the other hand, S.khezrlou (2012:80) ensured that "Learners need to be provided with appropriate ways of instruction to use these strategies as efficiently as possible. These strategies refer to the steps or operations used in learning or problem-solving that requires direct analysis, transformation, or synthesis of learning
Reading skills include skills acquired through reading, such as comprehension, fluency and independence. Overall, these skills give students the ability to turn words on a page into a clear meaning. Maynor ( 2016 ) Swanson (2001) indicated that research shows that children learn about reading before they enter school. In fact, they learn in the best manner-through observation. Young children, for example, see people around them reading newspapers, books, maps, and signs.