It is advised to seat the child fairly near the class so that teacher is available for help, or the dyslexic pupil can be supported by a well-motivated and sympathetic classmate. A lot of dyslexics have really poor handwriting. Reasons for poor handwriting can be poor motor control, tension, badly formed letters, speed. A cursive style handwriting is the most useful to children with dyslexic problems. Teachers should encourage students to study their handwriting and be self critical.
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF THE INSTRUMENT FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF READING DIFFICULTY (DYSLEXIA) * Thamilselvan .P and **Priyadharsini .K *Assistant Professor and ** II Year Postgraduate Trainee, Department of Psychology, PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore-641014. ABSTRACT Background: Dyslexia is a type of learning disability that manifests difficulty with word decoding, reading comprehension and/or reading fluency which affects between 5–17% of the population. It is a general term for disorders involving a failure to learn to read, or specific difficulties in the interpretations of words or letters, despite adequate general intelligence. Aim: The present study aimed is to development and validation of the instrument for the assessment
In this case, students’ perception, and feelings toward educational technology and iReady would be closely analyzed. Each student was asked to respond to a list of questions during the conferencing process: What do you like most about using iReady? What do you least like about using iReady? Would you rather learn reading skills by using practice books, literacy centers, worksheets, or iReady? Would you like to use iReady 1-2 times per week, 3-5 times per week, or more than 5 times per week?
The verb form delineates time (tense) which show past, present, or future time (Davis & Liss 2006). One of the aspects of accuracy is the usage of accurate tense based on the type of the sentence because every tense has definite functions in a given context which may be considered incorrect in another different context (Master 1996, Davis and Liss 2006, Roehampton 2008). Errors and Language Learning Errors are defined as “the flawed side of learner speech or writing. They are those parts of conversation or composition that deviate from some selected norm of mature language performance” (Dulay et al., 1982, p. 138). Brown (2001) asserted that there is a significant difference between mistakes and error where mistakes is the results of performance while errors is the result of competence due to lack of understanding the required knowledge or a gap in the learner competence.
However, there is a renewed interest in fluency among researchers and literacy advocates. Fluency is a reading skill that is considered the “bridge” between decoding and, so it is vital students develop this important link in the reading process (Rasinski, 2004). Although there are a number of areas that appear to be sources of reading difficulty, Valencia and Buly in their research with elementary students who perform poorly on high-stakes, silent reading achievement tests, (2004) found that a substantial number of fifth grade students who scored below the proficient standard on a fourth grade state reading test exhibited difficulties in what the Common Core State Standards have identified as a foundational reading skill -- reading fluency. While the previous studies attempt to prove the validity of some strategies in improving reading fluency, a gap in the research exists that gives specific attention to which factors impact reading fluency in L2 research in the first place. The present study aims to fill that gap left unaddressed in research.
The students are from different background and different levels of proficiency. 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN This survey will be carried out in selected urban primary school. The main aim of this study was to find out the students’ reading attitude and habit in terms in reading English language. The Standard 5 students and five English teachers from the selected school who will participate in this survey will be asked to respond to the items. This is a quantitative study which conducted through a survey method that involved questionnaire to get the response from the teachers and students regarding cultivate reading habits among the primary school students.
Reading is usually regarded as hard especially in English as the students unable to comprehend what they read. Students tend to read word by word which make them try to understand the words per se and not on context. When this problem occurs it will reduce their interest and motivation to read. By using the extensive reading materials, the students will be taught to read and be more concerned with the meaning of the text rather than the meaning of individual words or sentences. Limitation of the Research Some problems might arise when the research is conducted: a) Selecting reading materials and suit the students’ ability and fit with the needs of the curriculum specification could be rather demanding.
IRI’s are used for teachers to assess student’s reading of word lists and passages to see how fluently they read, although most teachers do not like to use IRI’s because they are extremely time consuming especially if there are multiple struggling readers being assessed. Instead teachers often choose to assess student’s accuracy and automaticity using CBM/ORF’s assessments. In CBM/ORF assessments readers are given a grade level text to read orally to the teacher but only for one minute. The teacher will mark any errors made by the reader during the reading and then count the number or correctly read words. This assessment is done so quickly it gives the teachers the chance to assess students using different passages to gauge their reading fluency and this assessment can be done
2.2.1 Reading comprehension Comprehension is the goal of reading (Breiseth, 2007), however it can be considered as the most difficult skill to master, especially for English language learners. Reading comprehension can be defined as the ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning. An individual 's ability to comprehend text is influenced by their traits and skills, one of which is the ability to make inferences. If word recognition is difficult, students use too much of their processing capacity to read individual words, which interferes with their ability to comprehend what is read (Stanovich, 1986). There are a number of approaches to improve reading comprehension, including improving one 's vocabulary and reading strategies.
Knowledge of word spelling is essential for reading and writing. Spelling recognition significantly improves phonological awareness and understanding of alphabetical principle. It also contributes to the general understanding of the meaning of the words and pronunciation. As spelling helps improve reading and writing fluency, it should be integrated into the begging stages of both programs. Spelling and handwriting are the basic components of transcription that has a key significance in writing developmental processes.