The results showed that students obtained a moderate mean in fluency via repeated reading. Not only do some student need assistance at times but also a good model to read so that they can know how to read properly since they will be reading on their own. Older struggling readers need to have a good model when reading .Model reading involves a good model e.g. . ; teacher, peer, tape recording or computer read the passage and students listen and or read along.
Share (1999) convincingly describes how decoding skills are supported by vocabulary, syntactic and semantic understandings. Speece and Cooper (2002) report a connection between early semantic skills and reading comprehension in their study of the connection between oral language and early reading. Decoding is vital because it is the basis on which all other reading instruction builds. If children are unable to decode words their reading will lack fluency, their vocabulary will be restricted, and their reading comprehension will suffer. Explicit, systematic and multi-sensory phonics instruction produces effective decoding skills.
These strategies can include additional elements of a balanced approach. The reading of a book aloud in a classroom setting and pointing at words as the words are spoken aloud provides students with the opportunity to see the spoken word in written context. Konza (2014, 154) notes in some research, oral language is excluded as a key element in learning to read. Although research suggests that oral language difficulties can lead to reading difficulties, therefore it is an important element. Once students understand oral language teachers can commence with working on
Teachers should incorporate a combination of direct instruction and the constructivist approach when teaching reading. This essay will discuss six elements of teaching students to read including oral language, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension and fluency, and ways in which teachers can deliver instruction using a balanced approach. A balanced approach to teaching reading involves explicit phonics instruction as well as world view. Traditionally students were introduced to reading with an emphasis on phonics. McBride-Chang (2004) recognised that this bottom-up approach resulted in students who are more likely to lose interest in reading due to the limited vocabulary and repetitiveness of texts they read (p.120).
6.2. Empirical Studies on Teaching Learners with Down Syndrome through Synthetic Phonics Strategies Synthetic phonics as a practical and applicable method has been used for young normal learners both in native and non-native contexts and the results of the studies have shown that it is a successful method. The purpose in this section is to investigate the effectiveness of this method in teaching literacy to learners with intellectual disabilities which Down syndrome is one of the examples. In this section studies that have used this approach for learners with Down syndrome, are presented and the researcher concludes this part with her own attitude regarding to choosing this method for her participants in the current study. Goetz et al.
The first test measured student 's understanding of decoding individual words. In the second test, students were given a passage to read and then they were instructed to fill in the missing words. Stipek, Newton, and Chudgar found that "positive learning-related behavior promotes literacy achievement" (Stipek, Newton, and Chudgar, p. 17,
This study aimed to investigate the effect of explicit sight word instruction on reading speed of elementary EFL students. Sight words are generally well-defined as those words that are not decodable by Ordinary English phonics instructions and that appear often in text (Hood, 1977). These words are found in 50-70% of written texts (Harris & Sipay, 1975). Additionally, all three theoretic methods to reading instruction—synthetic (Chall, 1970), authentic (Goodman, 1986) and interactive (Rumelhart, 1994)—obviously address the significance of inserting sight word in reading instruction. Although many learners are able to recognize words accurately, they spend extreme time and energy in the process of word recognition, which may lead to a breakdown of comprehension.
Introduction Teacher written feedback is generally regarded desirable by students, parents and teachers. Yet despite this positive notion, a considerable number of research on teacher feedback paid attention on its ineffectiveness in both the L1 (Hillocks, 1986; Sommers, 1982) and the L2 contexts (Semke, 1984; Zamel, 1985). As L2 writing classrooms move from the product to the process approach, peer feedback has been brought to complement the traditional feedback the teacher gives. As a result, peer feedback has become a frequently-employed pedagogical activity in L1 and L2 writing classrooms whereby students engage themselves in “reading, critiquing and providing feedback on each other’s writing, both to secure immediate textual improvement
Keeping in mind the end goal to enable learners to create certainty and confidence, cognitively teachers must examine the proposes of reading instruction and enable learners to create explanatory, procedural, and restrictive learning of these psychological methodologies, in this way assembling that would advance learners metacognitive control of particular learning strategies. The Linguistic foundations of reading and writing development is based on the viewpoint that the writer or reader uses their knowledge of the things around them and the structure of language to make connections of reading or writing content. According to research linguists, all cultures try to represent key aspects of their verbal language into their written languages. Based on major developments and contributions, " Letters and letter units correspond to particular sounds (phonemes); spaces in between words represent junctures in spoken language; and typographical RUNNING HEAD: Benchmark Reading Instruction features represent other linguistic properties (emphasis, the end of the sentence, etc.)"
Skilled readers, for instance, anticipate what is about to take place next in a story with the use of hints given in the text, devise questions about the main idea, message, or plot of the text,and monitor understanding of the sequence, context, or characters (Sanders, 2001). Numerous pupils that fight to learn how to read and become active readers are able, with proper guidance, to take care of their primary reading difficulties of becoming accurate decoders (Adams, 1990). Adams (1990) described good comprehenders as fluent readers. Therefore, in order to comprehend better as to be a fluent reader, learners need to see the text formed and arranged in such a way that simply can be interpreted, and which is indicative of the relationships amid its ideas and concepts. Tracing back to 1972, a research was carried out at Cornell University by Novak and Gowin, that children’s scientific conceptual change processes were directed to