The Enlightenment was a pattern of thought that started during the 1600s and 1700s “that critically examined traditional ideas and institutions, privileged reason, and championed progress” according to The Bedford Glossary of Critical Terms (Murfin and Ray, “Enlightenment”). Romanticism was the era that immediately followed in the 1800s, and it was characterized by an emphasis on emotion, nature, and fantastical writing (Murfin and Ray, “Romanticism”). Many of the ideals of the Romantic era were almost opposite to the ideals of the Enlightenment. Because of this, Romanticism is the Hegelian antithesis to the ideals of the Enlightenment because it emphasized emotion over reason, nature’s beauty over its danger, and personal stories over general
Reason and enlightenment played a dominant role during the period of the age of reason. Satirical and skeptical were the mode of their writing style. Emotions, feelings, instinct and idealism are key for the writer those emerged during the Romantic and Gothic period in American literature. Imagination and autobiographical elements dominate in the works whereas supernatural elements are blended in the works of the Dark Romantics. Autonomy and individualism are given preference by the transcendentalists.
Too Ideal To Be Real Alfred Lord Tennyson's “Lady of Shalott” is a direct response towards Dante Rossetti’s artistic views in “The Blessed Damozel” by using literary techniques and referencing famous literature to … artists to follow their philosophies.Rossetti was apart of an 18th century group “Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood” which had the philosophy that art should be divorced from the real. An artist must immerse themselves in their art Tennyson (explain who is Tennyson just a bit) who admired the Pre-Raphaelites works, had clashing philosophies. Tennyson believed that art should have beauty and function, for an artist to strive for an ideal but be grounded .Both artists commonly used the technique of juxtapositions in their works in
The Castle of Otranto was written in 1764, a period now remembered as the ‘Neoclassical Era’. Neoclassicism was a harkening back to the old, enlightened school of thought which prioritized rational thinking and logical reasoning. The Castle of Otranto rejected these ideas and embraced a more supernatural, melodramatic style of story telling thus creating the genre of gothic fiction. Due to this fact the supernatural themes presented in the Walpole’s novel were not so much used as a threat that people questioned but a device to propel the story and present facts to the reader. As Manfred, the tyrannical ruler of Otranto, is about to marry the women who was betrothed to his late son “three drops of blood fell from the nose of Alfonso’s statue” (p. 93).
New forms of expression are shown through modernism. The modernism era began in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, after World War I. the studies that fostered modernism were psychological studies, physiological studies and studies in political theories, which can be shown through things like art. https://www.britannica.com/art/Modernism-art What makes modern art different from other art forms are the use of bright colors, new technologies and new materials. http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/modern-art.htm One of the important movements in modernism is the movement of Impressionism, which took place between the 1870 's and the 1880 's. Impressionism started the idea of taking light and color to create a more
Key factors in the importance of Pre-Raphaelite painting was the emphasis on painting literary themes, involving romance, and developing psychological and social tension. Millais’ Isabella casts off the influence of William Etty, as well as the traditional composition, lighting, and detail of Victorian standards “Hunt, later repudiated the notion that the movement aimed at any kind of ‘revival’ of early Renaissance styles (Prettejohn 19).” The group focused on more significant subjects such as medieval tales, poetry, and religion, while emphasizing color and psychological stresses. The group individualized as they aged, with Rossetti concentrating more on mystical themes and individuality, and Hunt working towards realism, but with moralistic and modern themes. “In elevating color as a sensual element in painting these painters risked affronting those who associated color with what was disparaged as passionate, fleshy, and feminine in art - a lack of control and emotional excess in contrast to the disciplined rigor of sound draughtsmanship (Prettejohn 135).” Throughout the Pre-Raphaelite movement, art was focused on realism, while others strived away from that, and did more mystical like paintings, like
The main art movement of the 18th century was the Romanticism movement that originated in Europe. The movement placed strong focus on the veneration of past and nature, individualism and emotion. This came partly in response to the Industrial Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment. Some key artists include Jane Austen, who wrote the Pride and Prejudice, William Blake with his notable work Songs of Innocence and of Experience as well as Victor Hugo with this famous novel Les Miserables. The key ideas of art then revolved around liberalism and radicalism, emphasising emotions such as apprehension and awe.
He uses this modified naturalism to defend his philosophical perspective against to idealism and realism. The term ‘naturalized epistemology’ was introduced Quine in his famous article known as “Epistemology Naturalized” (1969). In this article he defends a naturalistic approach to epistemology, arguing that epistemology should be regarded as continuous with or even part of, natural science. Although Quine criticizes the version of empiricism adopted by the logical positivists and their immediate successors, he explicitly affirms a version of Hume’s
In the story O Pioneers, Cather presents the frontier in a way that writers generally describe in a romantic point of view. Cather raises the story in a naturalistic way, where the divide always has ways of making the situation worse. However, despite Cather writing the story, who has such naturalistic views about life, some areas portray romantic or realistic values. The title of her book, O Pioneers, comes from the romanticised poem by Walt Whitman about the frontier. This could foreshadow the small pieces of romanticism/realism within the story.
It is characterized by the organic use of fantastic elements along with easily distinguishable features of historical reality. The insertion in the realistic narrative of a supernatural element, that cannot be explained from the standpoint of the common universal laws,- is of a great importance. Another traceable element is a depiction of two coexisting and inter-penetrating artistic worlds (real, surreal) and perspectives, one of which is based on the “enlightened”, rationalistic vision of reality and the other- on the acceptance of supernatural logic as a part of everyday life. As Chilean-American writer Isabel Allende said: ' 'Life is very mysterious and there are many things we do not know. And there are elements of magic realism in every culture, everywhere.