Realism In Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe

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The belief in the Enlightenment had become the clichés of bourgeois rationalism, literary realism then, even though obsessed with details, moves from a broader historical perspective, it responds to the larger European’s quest for rationality, which is the attempt to understand the underlining forces of the existence that Romanticism had explained with God. In this sense Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (1719) is likely to be considered the founder of the modern novel, the triumphs and defeats of an individual who is not the product of divine intervention but an ordinary man. Realism pushes literature up to new standards developing different narrative devices, so we have the sentimental novel (Austen) stressing the importance of sensibility,…show more content…
Realism is the first literary attempt to explain modernity and that spell works for the West as well as for China. The Restoration had forced the old aristocracy and the new bourgeois to live together, a party devoted to the defense of old privileges but paralyzed by the fear of a second revolution, and a party filled with enthusiasm by the ideas and events brought in by the Revolution and Napoleonic decades. French society struggles for democratic reforms, the enlarging of bureaucracy, land reform, the class struggle between revolutionary and conservative, between the new bourgeoisie and the working class has become the central issue in every social problem. Considering the social agora, art can’t but reject the romantic sensibility grounded on the Christian idea of human nature and the immutability of God, scooping full hands from the materialism of everyday life where common people are intoxicated by the myth of Napoleon, by the book they read, either obsessed or horrified by the sight of a money-making society. Maoism on the other hand, had compelled people to the cause of collectivism. Since the May Fourth awaking, self is a concept imported in China from the West as part of Chinese modernity, but suspended in its infantile moment. As to say that feelings and desires are not new to Chinese people, but in Maoist China they were controlled, if not stigmatized, as improper since under the pressure of a totalitarian system individual issues don’t belong to the revolutionary discourse. Scar Literature soberly describes the dissolution of any privacy, the guilt felt behind intimacy, the danger of a personal thought in a world where the private becomes public and the public is a political arena occupied by those who criticize on one side and those who are criticized on the other. Maoism needed to restrict freedom to obtain discipline, discipline is on a par with devotion to instruction, ideological

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