According to Richard Chase, The American novel was born out of cultural contradiction. Its genesis lies in the aesthetic possibilities of radical forms of alienation, contradiction and disorder. American literature reached a new height of perfection and depth of meaning in this period. Critics like Malcolm Cowley and Edmund
The Scarlet Letter (1850) by Nathaniel Hawthorne is one of the American Romanticism’s famous fiction novel. The novel explores nature, society and the individual self to show us that we are far more capable than what others say we are and is far greater than what our world expects us to be. Dark Romanticism In Romanticism, two categories can be identified. The Transcendentalists and the Dark Romantics. Dark Romanticism is a sub-genre of Romanticism which was formed as a reaction towards the transcendental movement in 19th century.
Autonomy and individualism are given preference by the transcendentalists. Disappointment, discontent and distress affected the writers of Realism after the industrial revolution in America. Modernism can be considered as a branch of realism in American literature which has motivated the writers to go ahead with a new and novel style. This movement was initiated with the hope to change the mind-set of the
2. The English Novel 1945-1990 The history of the post-war novel in English, and also that of drama and poetry, cannot be understood without reference to the coexistence in the first half of the twentieth century of Modernism and the more traditional approaches to literature inherited from the Victorian period. The Modernist writers reacted against realism in fiction and the remains of Romantic sentimentalism in poetry by introducing technical innovations that could be used to look at reality from the point of view of the irrational, the subconscious, the anti-sentimental, or the highly individualistic. In drama, the revolution followed other lines, with G. B. Shaw 's introduction to the English stage of the naturalistic drama developed by
Setting out to reclaim his Americanness, Irving proclaimed his love for his country […].“ (Norton Anthology 468) 3. Characteristics of Romantic Literature Romanticism in America can be determined by the time after the War of 1802 (1802-1805) and through the Civil War (1861-1865). By defeating Britain, a vast feeling of nationalism was formed throughout the population of America and thus motivated many writers to express their emotions of American nationalism, creating literature that tried to distinct itself from European traditions, instead shaped by “[…] radical individualism and a total commitment to social reform, religious freethinking and the most conventional pieties, artistic experiment and self-conscious imitation.“ (Habich 3) It was a time of “increased readership, availability of print materials and, very important, evolution of critical opinion.“ (Habich 6) 4.1 Historical
So, it can be said that S. Martin Lipset made a comparison between early America and today’s emerging nations to find issues mutual to them as new nations. This was absolutely a new type of nation-state, since its people were not all of the same culture, ethnicity, and language, as had been supposed to be the incident in the previous defining of the concept of nation-state. S. Martin Lipset is also focusing on American’s later historical periods, picking for discussion as critical incidents, religious institutions and trade unions. Ultimately, Lipset is comparing the developments in political area in multiple industrialized democracies, including the United States. However, when a nation is building another nation/s may be destroyed.
In Democracy in America, Alexis de Tocqueville provides an analysis and critique of American civic life. During his travels across the country, he discovered how different America was from Europe, particularly France. While the majority of Europe consisted of aristocratic countries with hundreds of years of history, America was a young democratic country. Most notably, he observed that America was growing in equality. The growing equality becomes a presupposition of individualism and isolation, but despite this inevitable growth of equality, individualism and isolation can be minimized.
With the changing of culture in America between the two World Wars, many writers attempted to grasp the traditions of the past as well as embrace the future; and this is otherwise known as high modernism. Writers such as T. S. Eliot, embraced science and technology at first, but then experienced remorse over the loss of past traditions. What is more, Eliot, through his many poems reshaped the technique of poetry by breaking from tradition and embracing free from. In fact, Eliot’s aim was to impact other poets rather than the world itself. Overall, modernists at the time did not believe that time sequence or current political-social structures reflected reality, so instead they freely highlighted discontinuity and fragmentation to present reality.
Literary Movements There have been many literary movements throughout the centuries but the main focus for this essay are the romanticism, realism, and naturalism movements. Romanticism writing was popular between 1800 to 1850 and is a writing style that influences the events and characters in stories to be extreme and unrealistic. Many authors like Edgar Allen Poe and Walt Whitman took part in this movement with either gory or idealized pieces. When the romantic movement was on its way out, writing took a major turn toward realism. Realism refers to the attempt to represent familiar and everyday people and situations in an accurate, unidealized manner.
In fact it was rather modernism, as its name implies ,that tried to awake from the nightmare of history, self-consciously setting itself against the past, and rejecting mundane forms of historical understanding. Modernism doesn’t wholely favoured the simply historic narratives rather find truth is not evolutionary and progressive but something requiring analysis. Tracing the works of the modernist poets, especially the works of early twentieth century it should be voluntarily marked as art after the first world war which in time recorded all the emotional aspects of this crisis of longing despair, hopelessness, angst, paralysis and moreover a sense