Both within Deontological and Utilitarian Ethics, the regulatory ideal implies an objective inherent value which justifies the possibility of making moral judgements. Nietzsche marks a shift in paradigm by reframing the regulatory ideal and implicitly the fundaments of its justification. To better understand what Nietzsche’s Moral Philosophy is, we must also take a brief overview of his Philosophical paradigm. For the purposes of this paper I will only use and highlight particular aspects, as a full, in-depth description would risk a deviation from the point which needs to be made. Nietzsche’s shift is a radical one, in the sense that he rejects both „Ancient” and „Modern Morality”.
What is a categorical imperative? Why should one obey a categorical imperative? One main aspect of Immanuel Kant’s Deontological ethics is the philosophy of the categorical imperative. As he explained, the understanding behind the categorical imperative is that, in order for an individual to have moral worth, he must do his duty. In the book, Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, Immanuel Kant argues that the general concept of morality is divided into two rules of reason.
Silber says these rules are postulates of rationality since applying these rules in moral law could guarantee a rational consequence in a requisite sense. He explains: ‘‘only if the norms of morality, rules of thought and rules of aesthetic evaluation are treated as descriptive procedures, then there can be initially rational knowledge in science, the free play of sensibility and recognizing in aesthetic experience, autonomous action in moral experience’’ (Silber 200). Through postulates of rationality, Silber understands Kant to imply that his readers should follow the pragmatic rational-directed procedural ethic as he explains in the following: The procedurals of judgments in ethics. The procedural interpretation of rationality, that is,
Immanuel Kant tries very hard to put morality out there on how human beings should be treated and his theory can be seen as absolutely amazing. However to what extent can his theory be used and what are the strengths and weaknesses that occur from his theory? The strengths and the main points that stand out in Kant´s theory are, he emphasis the value of every human being, he shines light that some acts can always be perceived as being wrong and it provides certainty. In further detail the theory proceeds on the assumption that every human being is endowed with reason, should purely act out of duty and carry responsibility for one´s actions. It´s totality is easily understandable as well as applicable - do what is right, because it is right and the other way around, so to speak.
However, here it must be mentioned that David Hume’s reputation as a philosopher rests less on an apologist for feeling and more as an opponent of the moral power of reason, famously summarized in the claim that “reason is the slave of the passions” (Hardin, 2007, p. 25). Hume gives emphasis mainly on the psychological phenomenon of sympathy or a specific faculty of emotional communication that leads to the birth of humanity or
In The Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Immanuel Kant endeavors to refute Hume’s claim that all ideas have their origins in experience through his own transcendental idealism (Prolegomena, introduction, CoP pg. 819) . To do this, Kant progresses the view that it is possible to have a priori truths. To support this refutation, Kant develops a conceptual scheme that works to explain how a priori truths are synthesized in the mind, and gives an account of Kant’s “two-world view”. This view explores the relation and existence of the phenomenal world and the world of things-in-themselves.
Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher during the eighteenth-century who made waves with his theories pertaining to morality. Kant worked very hard to finance his education and came from humble beginnings. Immanuel’s primary philosophical works include Groundwork for Metaphysics of Morals, Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, and Critique of the Power of Judgement. The main concept behind Kant’s philosophy is human autonomy and free will. Immanuel Kant established his moral philosophy in line with the ideals of deontological moral theory.
Underneath the anti-Cartesian attitude of the pragmatist is the influence of Immanuel Kant. Kant’s critical philosophy was a synthesizing approach to philosophical issues. He sought to mediate the differences between rationalism and empiricism with reference to human knowledge and between idealism and realism. The result is his acclaimed revolution in philosophy which, in an attempt to synchronise both extreme philosophies of human knowledge, took an anthropocentric, subjective turn (Bxvi) . The central position of this revolution is the argument that the major determinant of the possibility of human knowledge is the human mind with its a priori conditions.
Kant’s theory of categorical imperative is of great importance. Kant supported the non-consequential ethical theory and said that one should not be considered as a tool to reach the other end or consequences of something. Whatever the reasons are the actions must always be morally correct. Kant’s Deontological Theory: Deontological theory of Kant is a duty based approach in with Kant says that duty is the most important thing no matter what are the consequences of an action one must fulfill their duty, duty is most
Kant also believed in Metaphysics being the base structure of reality and questioned nature and its scope and limits that are connected with Metaphysics. Since being a rationalist means to believe that reason was the basis to arrive at conclusions and being an empiricist meant that only reason the way gain knowledge is limited and the only way to arrive at the nature of reality and conclusions was through experience. Kant was led to agree with both the rationalists and the empiricists. Kant’s work also implies the notion of A Priori being the knowledge available without appeal to experience and A Posteriori being the empirical ground of experience. These led to his theory of the existence of synthetic knowledge which means a person having to go out and researching whether some facts are true of not and analytic knowledge which means that facts are available by pure exercise of concepts which lies true with definition.