Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB) This is one of the many and most important theories researcher’s uses to determine the behavioral intention of individuals in performing the behavior. The theory of Planned Behavior Ajzen, 1985 is an extension of Theory of Reasoned Action Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975. This theory was developed by Martin Ajzen Icek (1988, 1991) and it is concern with individual behavioral intention determined by factors such as behavioral beliefs, normative belief and control beliefs. Individual behavioral beliefs affects the attitude towards the behavior, normative belief determines subjective norm and control belief affects perceıved behavior control. The resultant of these factors are the intention and behavior to accept or reject the technology.
1.8 Theoretical Framework Application of Alzen and Fishbeein’s Theory of Reasoned Action According to Alzen and Fishbeein’s theory of reasoned action, attitude consist of beliefs about the consequences of performing a behavior multiplied by his or her evaluation of these consequences. A person’s volitional behavior is predicted by his attitude towards that behaviors and how he thinks other people would view them if they perform the behavior. A person attitude, combine with subjective norms forms his behavioral intention. Miller (2005) defines each of the three components of the theory as follows and used example of embarking on a new exercise program to illustrate the theory. 1.
It helps to explain one’s behaviour. It is defined as a tendency which characterizes an individual’s perspective about his self-independence and control by others (Corsini, 1999). It refers to the individuals’ perception regarding the underlying causes of different events that take place in their lives and also the ability to control over what happens to them. It is defined as a personality trait. Locus of Control is a personality dimension which helps to explain an individual’s trait and behaviours and refers to his/her very general, cross-situational belief about what determines the reinforcement in life (Haggbloom, Warnick, and Warnick,
According to the tenets of the theory of planned behavior, individuals first think about a behavior (e.g., the intent to act) and only then proceed to act (Chambers & Benibo, 2011). The dependent variables of intent to act in the theory of planned behavior include individual attitudes, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and behavioral norms which are in turn dependent variables to the actual behavior demonstrated (Chambers & Benibo, 2011). The theory of planned behavior has been applied in a number of different settings, including in the context of nosocomial infections (Hughes, 2008). In this context, the planned behavior theory conceptualizes individuals’ intent to engage in handwashing as involving three main factors: (1) attitude
A phenomenological approach that is system-based and communication-centered, in particular, may serve to illuminate the relationship between structure and agency. One assumption of this analysis is that system change occurs through the actions of individual actors. It is when individuals have the motivation and capacity for action that they speak out, enact policy changes, and participate in change-oriented collectivities. Change at the system level, in turn, can facilitate individual awareness and relationship building (DeTurk, 2006, p.
In this view, individuals are measured as factors who are contained in their own progression and, by means of their actions, they are able to make things happens. According to agency view, among other individual elements, people have self-beliefs through which they apply some control over their ideas, emotions, and activities. Therefore, people are both products and producers of their own surrounding and social system (Pajares, 2002) Upon of all the concepts that impact people’s presentation and performing, and locate at the center of social cognitive theory, are self-efficacy beliefs (Pajares, 2002). The foundation of human motivation, well-being and individual attainment is supplied by self-efficacy. If people believe that their attempt can create the requested results, they have enough stimuli to take action or insist in the face of adversities (Pajares, 2002).
Leadership is the ability to guide or influence others with an objective of achieving a desired outcome. It involves influencing beliefs, opinions, values, perceptions, or behaviors of an individual or a group, and it is an amalgamation of inherent personality traits, learned skills, and it is a response to situational stimuli. I believe that, at any particular moment, where two or more individuals are interacting, one of them will emerge as the leader the other(s). To me, this means leadership role is fluid, and it changes as situational stimuli changes. For instance, during interpersonal interaction involving two individual, the leadership role has potential to shift from one individual to the other, as the situational stimuli changes.
Bandura coined the term reciprocal determinism to describe the way behavior, environment, and person cognitive factors interact to create personality. The environment can determine a person’s behavior, and the person can act to change the environment. Some of the important process and variables that Bandura use to understand personality is the Observational Learning that he believe that this is a key aspect of how we learn. Through this process we form ideas about the behavior of others and then possibly adopt this behavior ourselves. Also on a Personal Control social cognitive theorists emphasize that we can regulate and control our own behavior, despite our changing environment (Bandura, 2006: Mischel
Registration –this is where the stimulus the individual chooses to react to is selected psychologically. Organisation –this is the categorisation of stimulus or information based on the person’s beliefs, prior experiences, knowledge and culture. Interpretation – where the individual analyses and interprets stimulus or information based on beliefs, prior experiences, knowledge and culture. 1.1.1 Social