Crumpler’s aunt was a woman who spent much of her time caring for sick neighbors and friends. In the beginning of her book, A Book of Medical Discourses, she explained that being surrounded by the work of her aunt is what made her form a liking to relieving the suffering of others, which is what pushed her to go into medicine. Crumpler became a nurse, a profession that did not require formal education in that time, and cared for patients in Massachusetts for eight years. She was eventually admitted to the New England Female Medical college in 1860, and graduated in 1864. She was the first and only African American to graduate the school due to it closing in 1873.
She studied under Ann Preston, the first female dean of Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, during Cole’s time there. The primary issue that several people had with her work was her duty as a sanitary visitor. Some did not see the purpose of having a sanitary visitor since he/she would not be providing the poor with the tools they need instead just informing them on how to stay sanitary. Cole faced many challenges and barriers during her career as a physician. In the 1860s, the United States was just adjusting to the end of the Civil War and African Americans were free but not treated equally.
Richard, Busy Hands: Images of the Family in the Northern Civil War Effort (New York: Fordham University Press, 2003). This book can be best described as showing the influence female nurses had in the Civil War. It is noted that the bond the female nurses made with the male soldiers helped them on their way to recovery. The familial atmosphere that the nurses provided gave the soldiers a boost in mental and physical health. The book really shows how the compassion of the nurses went a long way.
The tragedy served as an incentive; determined to save women in her mother’s position, Sanger enrolled in a medical program at Claverack College. She graduated in 1900 and began work as a nurse at White Plains Hospital. (Sanger 20). Here, she saw hordes of impoverished girls in desperate need of birth control and abortions, both illegal at the time. Sanger set out to change this, and at the end of her career, she would become the face of the Women’s Reproductive Rights movement.
It was stated by Louis E. Martin upon her death that “She gave out faith and hope as if they were pills and she some sort of doctor.” As an educator and a social worker Bethune dedicated her life as a public servant to better the lives of others. She served as the first African American woman to serve in a president cabinet and through her years of public services she worked with four presidents. Through those connections she was able to influence decision that affected the great good of all. Bethune diverse government and organizational service inspired a new generation of women civil rights leaders. Bethune sums it up in her pledge of the National Council of Negro Women “It is our pledge to make a lasting contribution to all that is finest and best in America, to cherish and enrich her heritage of freedom and progress by working for the integration of all her people regardless of race, creed, or national origin, into her spiritual, social, cultural, civic, and economic life, and thus aid her to achieve the glorious destiny of a true and unfettered democracy.”— Founder Mary McLeod Bethune's Pledge for
A male centred society and the patriarchy were once again being accepted as the norm and perpetuated. Women’s opportunities were severely limited, and her narrative was prescribed to her. Gloria Steinem was born the granddaughter of a committee member of the National Woman Suffrage Association, so activism and women’s rights had been tackled in her family far before she was born. Steinem’s parents split up early on in her life, resulting in her mother’s financial instability. Steinem later accredited her mother’s inability to keep a job to the hostile attitudes towards women in the workspace.
Some gained a sense of duty and wanted to help out in the war. These efforts greatly aided in the Union’s favor of the war. Clarissa “Clara” Harlowe Barton, the founder of American Red Cross and a famous women figure in American history, aided the Union army in the Civil War and transformed the way the medical practitioners treat patients to what it is now today. Clara Barton was born in Oxford, Massachusetts in 1821. In 1861, Barton volunteered at the Washington Infirmary to nurse the wounded Union soldiers.
The introduction Clara Barton is one of the nursing leaders that shaped history (Kerfoot 1998). Clara Barton will be the main focus of this assignment as she was a remarkable woman who started off as an educator and then a clerk and then a nurse and then one of the founders of Red Cross in America. In a time when women were not educated and were not even offered jobs she worked side by side with men. She was from the Not for Profit Sector. Her field was Nursing and she tackled with providing healthcare to those in natural disasters or war.
At the beginning of the play, Walter is harassing Beneatha about her choice of becoming a doctor. “Ain’t many girls who decide to be a doctor”(Hansberry 36), Walter means that it is uncommon for women to be a doctor in this era of time. Especially a woman of color becoming a doctor. Normally these women are nurses, if that even. It was very hard for African Americans to get a job due to having different colored skin.
She tells him “I’m going to be a successful doctor one day. Nothing you can say will change that.” A black woman becoming a doctor at the time is unheard of, but Bennie is determined to finish medical school and begin practicing. This determination reinstates her motivations as a black woman to break out of the stereotypes set for her. She concludes her statement by telling him to change his attitude, and learn a lesson about objectification, but states that she won’t be around if he does, meaning, George and she will no longer be going on dates. Beneatha is powerful for turning down George, an educated man with a much richer family than hers, but she is progressive for choosing her happiness over wealth.
During a time when women did not receive a formal education, her grandmother at home taught Abigail. Her eagerness to learn and to read is what created a bond between John Adams and her. Abigail married John Adams in 1764, and they moved to a small farm in Boston. When John Adams was elected to be a member of the House of Representatives John Adams left his family and moved to Philadelphia. Although Abigail stayed back in Boston with her family she greatly influenced John Adams actions through her letters.
Nursing Paper Fitsum Deresa Intro to Professional Nursing Charmain McKie, RN, MS, MPH Nursing Paper Susan (Baker) King Taylor is a very important historian that played a significant role in the nursing field. Her contribution to the nursing profession is astounding, but easily forgotten and unnoticed by many. Susie was born on August 6th, 1848 at Grest Farm on the Isle of Wight, in Liberty County, Georgia (35 miles from Savanna). The oldest of nine children born into slavery, her owners allowed her to move with her grandmother (Dolly Reed) in Savanna at the age of seven. Ms. Reed was a freed slave who considered education to be the most crucial aspect of a person’s life.
Pauli Murray was a feminist and civil rights activist who become the first African American woman Episcopal priest. Although she accomplished her goal, she had many troubles to get there because of the color of her skin. She was born Baltimore, but moved to Durham, NC where she grow up at. Murray graduated from Hunter College in New York City, but she wanted to further her education by attending the sociology program at the University of North Carolina. Murray was a very bright and intelligent woman, but her application was refused by the president of UNC, Frank Porter.
In Anne Moody’s memoir, she is faced with many obstacles and one of the major ones is her own mother, Toosweet. Toosweet resists the urge for the movement to continue because she projects her fear of change very clearly while Anne on the other hand is desperately aspiring change for blacks in the southern community. Toosweet sustains a hold on Anne encouraging her to live her life as everyone else and so she continues standing as a barrier between Anne and the movement. Yet, Anne finds all the more reason to continue her work as a member of the NAACP and Core. Anne not only wants to end segregation but to prove to her mother that she is capable of such an advance.
A few weeks later, she began teaching it to her students. Teaching rhetoric, logic, algebra, and chemistry among other studies, Catharine found the books to be unsuitable to teach her students the way she desired and instead began to write her own. Even more groundbreaking, Catharine taught calisthenics to teach women proper physical education because she believed society’s view imposed poor views of health by promoting fragility, tight corsets, and poor diets. Even though Catharine advocated proper health, she had numerous nervous collapses and was treated in sanitariums frequently in her life. Catharine authored multiple treatises and books, including, A Treatise on Domestic Economy, The American Woman’s Home, The Moral Instructor for Schools and Families: Containing Lessons on the Duties of Life, and The Duty of American Women to Their Country.