Also, it refers to the general price level increase because of increasing of consumer which is manifested in consumer price index (CPI). CPI is used by the consuming public to recognize how their purchasing power is getting effected. It aims to compare the cost of purchasing the market basket bought by a typical consumer during a specific period with the cost of purchasing the same market basket during earlier period. (Gwartney, James D.; Stroup, Richard L.; Sobel, Russell S. 1999) Due to real factors, the demand-Pulled Inflation will occurred by issues such as: fall in tax rates, without change in government spending, increase in investments, increase in government spending without change in tax revenue, decrease in savings, increase in exports, and/ or decrease in imports. For instance, buyers started generating more income or more volume of money, thus there will be high demand and the price of the goods or services will be increased.
b. the effective loan yield will increase as a result of the decrease in the LIBOR and the bank would be able to offer more loans in the future. 2. a. The effective loan yield will increase as a result of 1% increase in the LIBOR and the value of the currency will also increase allowing the bank to offer more loans at attractive rates. b. The effective loan yield will decrease as a result of 0.75% decrease in the LIBOR and the value of the currency will also decrease which will force the bank to charge higher borrowing rates and may not be able to make loans in the
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW INFLATION (InvestorWords, 2015) stated that inflation is the increase in the general price level of goods and services in economy, normally caused by excess supply of money. Inflation usually measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). When the cost of producing goods and services goes up, the purchasing power of dollar will decrease. A customer will not be able to purchase the same goods and services as he/she previously could. Inflation rate of 1-2% per year are acceptable and even desirable in some ways (Investopedia, 2015).
On the other hand, the LM curve is affected by Monetary Policy. An expansionary monetary policy (where the monetary authority of an economy purchases bonds to expand the money supply) would cause the LM curve to shift to the right. A contractionary fiscal policy (central bank buys back bonds to reduce the money supply in the economy) would shift the LM curve to the left. IS/LM curve shift can also cause fluctuations in Business Cycle. Business Cycle is the movement of GDP in the long term.
It is the rate at which depository institutions borrow and lend from one another in the federal funds market. The FOMC’s open market operations lower the rate by increasing the reserves supplied to the economy, or alternatively, raise the rate by reducing the supply of balances. Due to a term structure of interest rates, the changes in the short-term interest rates are transmitted to the long-term interest rates since the financial markets expect the changes to persist for an extended period of time or assume that they convey information about the future monetary policy. Also, the inflation inertia ensures that the change in the federal funds rate effectively influences the real interest rate which is equivalent of the cost of borrowing. By altering the cost, federal funds rate indirectly affects the spending and investment by households and businesses, which on their turn, impact output and inflation in the economy.
The other classification, reinvestment risk means “the returns on funds to be reinvested will fall below the cost of funds” (Cornett, Lange & Saunders 2013). As discussed above about expansion to the investment banking business, Wellfleet can orchestrate syndicated loans and leveraged loans through its investment banking businesses, so that several banks together have the ability to take larger loans for profits with more currency than that of only one financial institution. But interests of the loans are possible to be lower than the funds reborrowed by Wellfleet, in which condition would lose money and this operation would be failed. Proposal Assumptions: • Counterparty: Gatwick Gold Corporation (GGC) – a large gold producer • The counterparty is rated 5B by Wellfleet’s internal rating model and credit committee. This translates to (Probability of Default) PD = 0.39% • Product Type: syndication.
This means as employees’ nominal wages increase with inflation their real wage (purchasing power of nominal wages) may remain constant. Since inflation reduces the incentive for households to save, it causes a shortage of savings for firms to borrow. Firms finance investment (the purchase of new capital goods) by borrowing money. Therefore, if there is not saving funds for investment will
Capital reduction is the process of reducing a firm’s shareholder equity through share repurchases and share cancellations. The reduction of capital method is used if the firm wishes to increase the shareholders’ values and to produce a more efficient capital structure. Hill country can repurchase their shares from the marketplace. A share repurchase not only reduces the number of shares outstanding, it also increases the earnings per share and elevates the market value of the remaining shares in the market. After repurchasing, these shares either will be cancelled or held as treasury shares.
The cash ratio is the number of times that the company could meet its current obligations to its current cash balances. The higher the reserve ratio, the more likely a company will be able to pay its short-term debt. Shortly before failure, companies often have very low cash reserve ratio, low levels of inventories, receivables and relatively low current high ratios. Therefore, analyze that Bayou is lays on which position (Henderson et al.,
Consider one of the most influential theories in behavioral finance, Prospect Theory, which is developed by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky with their published paper in 1979, investors value gains and losses differently. Losses have more emotional impact to investors than an equivalent amount of gains. Prospect theory states that people are risk-averse in the domain of gains and risk-seeking in the domain of losses; according to a more specific behavior pattern (fourfold pattern of risk, Tversky & Kahneman, 1992), people are risk-averse for gains with high probability but risk-seeking for gains with low probability, while people are risk-seeking for losses with high probability but risk-averse for losses with low probability (Tversky & Kahneman,
During this decade, the Fed pursued a discretionary stop-go monetary policy using a trade-off known as the Phillips Curve, which alternated efforts to decrease high inflation and high unemployment. To target high unemployment, the Fed enacted an expansionary monetary policy, or a go period, by lowering the short-term nominal interest rate called the federal funds rate, to loosen the money supply. The federal funds rate is the interest rate that a bank charges another bank when loaning out their reserve balances in order for the other bank to maintain reserve requirements. The Fed chose to target the federal funds rate because it is very influential in the economy, affecting monetary and financial conditions. After inflation mounted during the go period, the Fed would enact a contractionary monetary policy, or a stop period, by raising interest rates to tighten the money
If interest rates increase, it will become attractive to invest money in that country because investors will get a higher return from savings in that country’s banks. Therefore the currency demand will rise. But higher interest rates will have a negative impact on the country. This is due to the reduction in purchasing power of the consumer while the loan borrowers have to pay more interest. Foreign investors are attracted towards a country that has a strong economy.
Monetary policy is the actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates. The concept of Monetary Policy simply stated is that the cost of credit is reduced, more people and firms will borrow money and the economy will heat up. c. The controls that Federal Reserve used worked because the use of the three main tools the Fed uses is the most important that can manipulate monetary policy. The Fed’s goal in trading the securities is to affect the federal funds