The reaction the occurred in the experiment was a reaction between acetic acid and isopentyl alcohol to form isopentyl acetate and water. The esterification of acetic acid with isopentyl alcohol occurs in four steps. The first step in the reaction mechanism is the protonation of acetic acid with a proton from the concentrated sulfuric acid that was added to the reaction mixture. In the second step, acetic acid reacts with the isopentyl alcohol to form a reaction intermediate which undergoes proton transfer or rearrangement protonation. Water acts as a leaving group in the third step and is removed from the reaction intermediate.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst. It forms a complex with HBr and extracts it from the aqueous phase into the organic phase where the alkene is. This dehydrates the acid, making it more reactive so that the addition reaction is possible. Rapid stirring is required in order to maximize the surface area
During the process a mixture is separated into several parts called fractions. Mixtures contain different substance with different boiling points, the differences in boiling points is the main reason fractional distillation is effective. The temperature at which a phase change occurs from liquid to vapor is the boiling point. Fractional distillation Column Fractional distillation column is a fractionating column used for separating a mixture into its various
One of the reactions you observed resulted in this product: NaCl + H2O + CO2 (g)? What well did this reaction occur in? Describe how the observations for this reaction support your answer. B BoldI ItalicsU Underline Bulleted list Numbered list Superscript Subscript70 Words A reaction I observed in number 1.) Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid.
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
The results are expressed as endotoxin units (EU), which is a measure of endotoxin potency rather than the quantity. This reflects the variability in toxicity of naturally occurring LPS (rapidmicrobiology n.d.). The chromogenic method uses a synthetic substrate that brings about a colour change when it is cleaved by endotoxin-activated protease. The turbidimetric method on the other hand, relies on the a coagulin gel cot forming which will alter the turbidity of the sample. Both the turbidimetric and the chromogenic methods can be used as quantitative kinetic methods simply by plotting standard curves of time vs endotoxin concentration.
An EAS reaction pertains to the substitution of an aromatic hydrogen for an electrophile by means of an electrophilic attack on the aromatic ring which in this case is benzene. The product of the reaction was purified by recrystallization and characterized by both NMR spectra and melting point
as a result of combining the miya and 〖CO〗_2 in the cool conditions , they are separated in hot conditions. The separated miya is sent by a pump to the heat exchanger to be cooled then it is sent to the absorber for recycling . When the 〖CO〗_2 travels to the heat exchanger then to PPM which is potassium per manganite. which is used to absorb the impurities of 〖CO〗_2 . after removing the impurities it goes to the dehydrator to remove the humidity , so we only have dry 〖CO〗_2 and it is stored in two tanks
 synthesized Mannich bases of isoxazolines derivatives by the condensation reaction of substituted acetophenone with substituted aldehydes in presence of alcoholic NaOH via chalcones intermediate. A palumbopiccionello, et. al reported the synthesis of isoxazoline derivatives through Boulton –Katrizky rearrangement of 1, 2, 4, oxadiazoles. R. Bhimwal etal.  described the synthesis of isoxazolines via cyclisation of substituted chalcone intermediates in the presence of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and screened them for antimicrobial activity.