Red Tide Research Paper

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Red tides
Red tide is a generic term for harmful algal bloom or HAB. Red tides occur as a result of explosion of algae population such as dinoflagellates. The expansive population concentrates along the water column and cluster in one area of the ocean, this results in the change of color of the surface water. Red tides occur along coastal areas.
Red tides are not necessarily always red. The color may vary from deep shades of red to pink, orange, brown or even yellow.
Algae require sufficient nutrients. Warm temperature and ample sunlight to grow. Therefore, they reside in the upper 200 to 300 feet (60-90meters) of ocean water.
Algal blooms can occur due to a number of natural
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i. Karenia Brevia: responsible for Red Tide in west coast of Florida and shore of Texas ii. Alexandrium fundyense: responsible for red tide along Atlantic coastline from New England to Canada iii. Alexandrium catenella: Responsible for red tide throughout the Pacific ocean. Areas from Mexico to Alaska and coastlines of Japan and Australia, How are Red tides harmful?
Red Tides affect the marine and land life in various ways, the most important of which are listed below
1. Effects on human life:
i. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP): This happens if fish contaminated with Alexandrium species is consumed. It majorly affects the nervous system and in many cases leads to paralysis. In extreme cases, the paralyses may affect the respiratory system and ay result in death. ii. Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP): This is mainly caused by the algae belonging to Dinophysis specie. It affects the Digestive system where the symptoms include Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cramps, and
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Swimming is usually safe, but skin irritation and burning is possible in areas of high concentration of red tide.
1972: A red tide was caused in New England by a toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium (Gonyaulax) tamarense. The red tides caused by the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax are serious because this organism produces saxitoxin and gonyautoxins which accumulate in shellfish and if ingested may lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and can lead to death
1976: The first PSP case in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo where 202 victims were reported to be suffering and 7 deaths
2005: The Canadian red tide was discovered to have come further south than it has in years prior by the ship (R/V) Oceanus, closing shellfish beds in Maine and Massachusetts and alerting authorities as far south as Montauk (Long Island, NY) to check their beds. Experts who discovered the reproductive cysts in the seabed warn of a possible spread to Long Island in the future, halting the area's fishing and shellfish industry and threatening the tourist trade, which constitutes a significant portion of the island's

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