The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
The NAD+ and FAD each pick up hydrogen and electrons, turning them into NADH and FADH2. Each Pyruvate can yield 3 NADH and 1 FADH2 per cycle. The purpose of the Krebs cycle is to create these for the next stage, Oxidative Phosphorylation. Oxidative Phosphorylation (the electron transport chain) The FADH and NADH that were created in the Krebs cycle use their electrons to provide energy to electron transport chain that moves proteins along the inner membrane of the mitochondria. These proteins swap the electrons to send hydrogen protons from the inside of the mitochondria to the outside.
The Lead Acetate Test is a specific test in indicating the presence of sulfur in the protein chain. This test only shows a positive result in cysteine and cystine, the only types of protein containing sulfur. In the experiment, the reagent used was lead acetate (Pb(OAc)2) in NaOH. As explained in Milio and Loffredo (n.d.), boiling of cysteine and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in a water bath converts the sulfur in the protein into sodium sulfate (NaS), causing the precipitation of lead from the solution as observed with the presence of black precipitate once the reaction occurred. The presence of the black precipitate indicates that sulfide and not sulfate, which gives off a brown color, was present in the reaction.
Sodium Bicarbonate mixed with Hydrochloric acid. The chemical reaction observed showed that there was fizzing and bubbling, this is evidence that a new gas was being produced. This new gas, CO2 was generated from the reaction. After the fizzing stopped a liquid was leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover leading me to conclude the liquid leftover was the NaCl and H2O 4. You found a sample of a solution that has a faint odor resembling vinegar (an acid).
3. To purify and identify the product, recrystallization is used in order to purify the product, then melting point and TLC techniques are used to identify the product. Theory 4. In nucleophilic substitution reactions, there are two possibilities, either Sn1 or Sn2. In this particular experiment, an Sn2 reaction
Cross Condensation of aldol 2015007632 Dowrie, K Contents Reaction 1 Introduction 1 Experiment Procedure 2 Experimental results 3 Table of calculations 3 Calculations 3 NMR 4 TLC 4 References 5 Reaction Introduction An aldehyde reaction is when aldehydes and keytones, both containing an α-hydrogen in the presence of an alkali group condenses and forms an enone. Acetone has α-hydrogens on each side. The proton can be removed and therefore giving a nucleophile anion. The aldehyde carbonyl is more reactive than the keytone and so it reacts rapidly with the anion. This product undergoes base catalysed hydration giving dibenzalacetone.
Aluminum (s) + Sulfuric acid (aq) > Hydrogen (g) + Aluminum sulfate (aq) 2 Al (s) + 3 H2SO4 (aq) > 3 H2 (g) + Al2(SO4)3 (aq) This reaction undergoes physical and chemical changes, there is a chemical change as there are new products formed and a physical change as there are changes in state. 3. The reaction between silver nitrate and sodium chloride to form sodium nitrate and silver chloride. AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) → NaNO3 (aq) + AgCl (s) This reaction undergoes physical changes as there is a change in state and also there is a change in colour, after the reaction occurs, a white precipitate is formed. The reaction also undergoes a chemical change as 2 new products are formed.
This involves the removal of hydrogen and its transfer to a hydrogen carrier molecule (NAD) to form reduced NAD. Each pyruvic acid yields 2 molecules of ATP in the process of its creation. The 2 reduced NAD made goes to the electron transport chain and the 2 molecules of pyruvate goes into the link reaction which is the next stage. The link reaction connects glycolysis to the Kreb’s cycle. The pyruvate undergoes decarboxylation and dehydrogenation to produce C02 and H+ which is used to reduce NAD.
It was able to support itself as a thin sheet, but easily fragmented when a small force was applied. 3mL of 2M Sodium Hydroxide and 1mL of water, effectively 4mL of 1.5M Sodium Hydroxide, was added to a small amount of Indigo, forming a paste. Sodium Hydrosulphite the acted as a reducing agent, converting Indigo into Leucoindigo, an acidic phenolic compound that reacts with hydroxide ions provided by Sodium Hydroxide to form a water-soluble salt. The solution turns colourless, and the dying process can begin. A 60°C water bath was chosen as Sodium Hydrosulphite will decompose into Sodium Sulfate and Sulfur Dioxide in presence of air at 90°C.
In contrast, a substance that donates electrons is a reductant or reducing agent (Cao G, Prior RL, 1998). In general, a chemical reaction in which a substance gains electrons is defined as a reduction (SchaferFQ, BuettnerGR, 2001). Oxidation is a process in which a loss of electrons occurs. When a reductant donates its electrons, it causes another substance to be reduced, and, when an oxidant accepts electrons, it causes another substance to be oxidized (Hrbac J, Kohen R, 2000). In biology, a reducing agent acts via donation of electrons, usually by donation of hydrogen or removal of oxygen.
This lab’s end result was to correctly identify each unknown solution using prior knowledge of chemical properties and the results of the first experiment conducted. Unknown solution D was the only colored solution, being blue while the others were clear. This made it easy to then match D up to Copper Sulfate because of its color. As unknown A and B were added together, lots of gaseous bubbles formed and revealed the fact that that reaction was the reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Carbonate because it was the only reaction that produced a gas release. Unknown A and C produced the only yellow, brown precipitate just as the reaction between Sodium Carbonate and Silver Nitrate had previously.
Here, it can be seen that the chlorine anion that was a part of the hydrochloric acid is transferred to the pure magnesium, leaving behind hydrogen. Double-replacement reactions are yet another type of chemical reactions. A double-replacement reaction also involves the transfer of anions. However, unlike a single-replacement reaction, a double-replacement reaction has two anions being intrechanged. An example of this type of reaction would be the combination of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to form water and sodium chloride: HCl + NaOH --> H2O +
Polarity shared electrons get pull away difference in electrical charge at one end as opposed to the other end 2.3 The Ionic Bond 1. Ionic bonding when the electronegativity differences between 2 atoms were so extreme that the electrons were pulled off 1 atom only to latch on to the atom that was attracting them A: What is an Ion? 1. Ion is a changed atom or an atom with the number of electrons different from it number of protons 2. Ionic bonding is the chemical bonding in which 2 or more ions are linked by virtue of its opposite charge 3.