After 10 minutes, the solution was deleaded by adding potassium oxalate crystals in excess and the volume was made up to a known amount with distilled water and filtered through whatman No. 1 filter paper. The filtrate was taken in a burette and titrated against boiling Fehling’s mixture (5 ml of Fehling’s solution A + Fehling’s solution 5 ml of B) till the blue colour faded. Then one ml of methylene blue indicator (1 per cent) was added and the titration was continued till the contents attained a brick red colour and titre value was noted. The percentage of reducing sugar was calculated according to the following
Repeat the experiment. The cola drinks were titrated using the following method: Prepare the beverage in a 250ml volumetric flask. Use a funnel to facilitate the process. Place the beaker on a hot plate so that it boils and place a watch glass on top to prevent the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere getting dissolved in the cola. Once the cola starts to boil, continue to boil it for another 10 minutes so that the carbon dioxide is removed.
The incubation mixture contained 2.5 ml of 1.2% (w/v) fibrin, 2.5 ml of 100 mM Tris–HCl buffer, 10 mM CaCl2 (pH 7.8), and 20 µg of enzyme. The incubation was carried out at 37°C for 30 min, and the reaction was stopped by adding 5 ml of 110 mM trichloroacetic acid containing 220 mM sodium acetate and 330 mM acetic acid. This reaction mixture was centrifuged at 3,000×g for 5 min, and the absorbance of the trichloroacetic acid (50 mM) soluble product was determined at 275 nm. One unit of fibrinolytic enzyme activity was defined as the amount of enzyme required to liberate 1 µg of L-tyrosine per minute at 37°C. The total protein determination was performed as described by Lowry et al.
The production stages of mixing and compaction to produce the green compact (sugar-Al powder compact) were exactly the same as in the case of producing pure Al-foams [10,11]. Nevertheless the stages of dissolution and sintering had to be properly adjusted for achieving the carbon coating on the Al-foam. In this case the crystalline raw cane sugar was partially removed from the green compact by water leaching at room temperature. About 70% wt. of the sugar in the green compact was dissolved in water.
The dried mushroom samples were further heated at 105 ºC overnight until constant weight obtained for moisture content determination. The samples were incinerated at 550 ºC for 24 h and reweighed to determine ash content. MicroKjeldahl method was employed for the crude protein content (N × 4.38). The crude fat was determined by extracting a known weight of sample in Soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether as a solvent. Total carbohydrates calculated by the difference.
126.96.36.199-Extraction method No.2: Fifty grams of powdered aerial parts of portulaca oleracea extracted by soxhlet with 500ml 0f 70% ethanol for 8 hr. then the extract cool at room temperature ,filter and evaporate to dryness by rotatory evaporator at 60ºC .The dried extract hydrolyzed by reflux with 250 ml of 2N of hydrochloric acid for 3 hr. The final extract cool at room temperature ,filter then partitioning with ethyl acetate three times each one with 50 ml of ethyl acetate ,combine the three lower layer and evaporate to dryness by rotatory evaporator to give the crude extract(12.765 gm) as shown in scheme
Fraction I was discarded due to the presence of high fatty substances, whereas fraction II was analysed for the free flavonoids in each of the samples. Fraction III of each of the test samples was dried and hydrolysed by refluxing with 7% H2SO4 (10 ml/gm residue) for 5 hours on water bath. The mixture was filtered and the filtrate extracted with ethyl acetate in a separating funnel. The ethyl acetate layer was washed with distilled water till neutrality and dried in vacuum. The residues were taken up in small volumes of ethanol separately and then subjected to various tests for
Alginate sample (30 mg) was hydrolyzed in 10 mL HCl (0.3 M) at 100 ºC for 2 h. After cooling, the mixture was centrifuged (6000 rpm, 45 min), and the supernatant solution was separated and neutralized with 1 M NaOH and referred to as fraction A. The insoluble material was dissolved in 1 M NaOH and the pH was decreased to 2.85 by the addition of 1 M HCl. The suspension was recentrifuged and the supernatant was separated and referred to as fraction B. The insoluble fraction was dissolved by neutralization with 1 M NaOH and referred to as fraction C. The fractions A, B, and C are enriched in MG, MM, and GG blocks
Besides, 10mL of Ca(IO3)2 solution was added to KI solution in a 250mL Erlenmeyer flask using 10.00mL graduated pipette. Finally, 10mL of HCl was added to the solutions of KI and Ca(IO3)2 in a 250Ml Erlenmeyer flask using 10.00mL graduated cylinder. After adding all the solutions, the final of the solutions in a 250mL was brown. The solution was carefully titrated with sodium thiosulfate until it turned yellow. When the solution turned yellow, 10 drops of 1% starch indicator were added to the solution and titration was continued until the solution turned colorless.
Transstrification parameters The methanol and catalyst were stirred about 10 min separately and then transferred to the reactor for transestrification. The final mixture was stirred constantly to produce BD as soon as the temperature reached to proper. After the transesterification reaction, the reaction mixture transferred to the settle tank. The mixture was settled overnight and the glycerol layer was separated by decanter. The upper oil layer was the crude BD and the down layer was crude glycerol.