Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CBT) is a form of psychological treatment that helps different types of behavioral problems such depression, eating disorders, and severe mental illness. The Cognitive Behavioral Theory was pioneered by Aron Beck. Although he spent most of his career studying psychoanalysis, in the 1960s his research focused on distorted thoughts that led to problematic behaviors (“Beck”, 2017). He developed the Cognitive Behavioral Theory trying to help his depressed clients while working as a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania. The Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CBT) approach consists on monitoring negative automatic thoughts (cognitive), recognizing the connection between cognition and behavior, examine the evidence
Direction ought to be founded on understudies existing mapping or mental structures, to be viable. The association of data is associated in such a way, to the point that it ought to identify with the current information in some significant way. The cases of psychological methodology are Analogies allegories. The other intellectual procedures incorporates the utilization of confining, plotting the mental aides, idea mapping, propel coordinators et cetera ( West, Farmer, and wolff,1991). The subjective hypothesis primarily stresses the significant undertakings of the instructor/creator and incorporates examining that different learning encounters to the learning circumstance which can affect learning results of various people.
What is behaviorism? Behaviorism is theory of learning that relies on an observable behavior that are based on two different types of conditioning, one is the Classical Condition and the other is Behavioral Conditioning. In Classical Condition, also known as Pavlovian Conditioning, the theory is that the brain forms an automatic response through an association with a stimulus. Whereas in Operant Condition, a positive and negative reinforcement is used to create an association between opposing behaviors and the consequences for those behaviors. Though both are different in terms of conditioning, they each help us understand the way we learn and emotional response to certain subjects.
Understanding the relationship between of culture on psychopathology has been topic of considerable interest. Psychologists have been divided into two main schools, the first being the perspective of cultural relativism i.e. abnormal behaviour must be interpreted within the cultural framework in which the behaviour is happening. It believes that psychopathology and culture are interwoven. The second view believes that culture is important to understand the context in which the behaviour is happening, however there are cross culture similarities as well as universalities in the experience as well as the outcome of psychological disorders.
Communication theory is a driving force behind instructional design. Instruction is designed so that its objectives can be properly communicated and received by the learner. Both the learner and the designer receive feedback about the instructional process. System theory System theory is an inter-disciplinary theory which consist a set of concept, construct, facts and terms which describe and explain the characteristics and phenomena affecting with any system. Thinking instructional design as a concept of system or ‘a set of interrelated and interacting parts that work together toward some common goal’ (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 24) Instructional designer should be aware of other system discipline.
1. Elaboration Likelihood Model The Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion, developed by Richard Petty and John Cacioppo, is essentially a theory about the thinking processes that might occur when we attempt to change a person’s attitude through communication, the different effects that particular persuasion variables play within these processes, and the strength of the judgements that result. At its core, and as the name suggests, the ELM assumes that individuals can differ in how carefully and extensively they think about a message and the position, object or behavior it is advocating. That is, in any given context, the amount of elaboration or thinking a person does about a message or issue can vary from low to high along an “elaboration
Contrary to this, in Kohn’s view, behaviourist teaching is seen as a ‘controlling’ technique and as a way to increase learning performance. In this instance, however, it is a management technique that contributes to the implementation of other theories such as social-constructivism and cognitivism, discussed further
It assumes that behavior, good or bad, is learned and the environment is the primary factor affecting learning. It focuses on events that can be observed rather than emotions and strongly associates response to specific stimulus (Hooley,
From a critical approach this article is considered an example of a psychoanalytic criticism. There are many concepts throughout the article that prove this specific criticism. For instance, one of the main focuses is Huck 's conscience and how he strives to elude the conformities of society. He represses contempt that he holds for his father 's negative attitude, which contributed greatly to Huck 's low self-esteem. The Oedipal Complex created by Freud comes into play at this point in time.
Conversely, the attribution theory deduces the cause of behavior from behavioral consequences. Hence, the attribution is the causal explanation and inference that the observers make to predict and evaluate human behavior. In summary, attribution is seeking causes of results. That is to say, people analyze their own behavior or others by utilizing their perceptions, thoughts, judgments and so on, and then they find out and explain the reasons for those behaviors. Therefore, attribution is an important component of human cognitive process, as well as an important influence on the formation of self-concepts.