The concrete should be used as efficient as possible. Nowadays researches efforts are continuously looking for new, better and efficient construction method. Various theories related to the analysis of structural elements reduced the self-weight of element for a given load- carrying capacity. Structural material optimization can reduce the dead load which reduce the contribution of seismic effect in high rise structures and also very good at the vibration dampers and heat isolation. According to the natural behaviour of the concrete, it is strong in compression and weak in tension.
The construction methodology is the same with elastomeric bearings; however, the damping is increased by adding carbon block and other fillers. In addition, it has an adequate resistance to service loads. The damping characteristic is in between hysteric and viscous. The energy dissipation is linear and quadratic for hysteric and viscous, respectively. The energy absorption capability help reduced the earthquake energy transmitted to the superstructure.
The tensile strength of the material increases because the subsequent application of tensile stress must nullify the compressive prestress. • This can result in improved structural capacity and serviceability compared to conventionally reinforced concrete. • High-strength tendons are used to produce compression. They are made of high- tensile steels, carbon fibers etc. and consist of threaded bars, single or multiple
Concrete, or more specifically ready-mix concrete, is a common material for driveways and walkways. While it works well and is usually quicker to pour, it is prone to some issues. Discoloration, flaking, and crumbling are all pitfalls of ready-mix concrete. Fortunately, these pitfalls can easily be avoided. If you have recently had your driveway or walkway poured with ready-mix concrete, use these four tips to help it keep it looking beautiful and healthy for years to come: 1.
Tectonics is defined as the science or art of construction, both in relation to use and artistic design. It refers not just to the activity of making the materially requisite construction that answers certain needs but rather to the activity that raises this construction as an art form. It is concerned with the modeling of material to bring the material into presence - from the physical into the meta-physical world (Maulden, 1986). Since tectonics is primarily concerned with the making of architecture in a modern world, its value is seen as being a partial strategy for an architecture rooted in time and place therefore beginning to bring poetry in construction. Tectonics, however, has the capacity to create depth-ness of context resulting in the implicit story being told by the tectonic expression.
For this the mold should be made from high strength preferably of hardened steel. Secondly, for better mechanical properties it is advised that the molded items be annealed. Thirdly, mold release agents if required should only be made from fluorine based compounds to avoid stress cracks. Applications Poly (ether sulphone) has a variety of applications in a vast array of fields. The most successful applications are mentioned below.
In practice, this is often not the case, and instead, fractures may take place in the bond material, the substrate, or both and may extend beyond the initial bonded area. What is actually being measured is the fracture force of a bonded system for a particular method of load application and should only cautiously be interpreted as bond strength Hence, the failure modes of e.g. Glass ionomer cement , and Biodentine , to dentine were largely cohesive within the cement rather than at the interface. Therefore, the rigidity of the material has a significant influence on the interpretation of bond strength
While architects and interior designers are both highly trained professionals with comprehensive knowledge of architectural principles, literally speaking these two careers are taught different disciplines. On one hand there’s architecture; a much regulated field. The top priority of an architect is to design and create buildings and spaces that are safe to use and inhabit. Architecture deals with designing the whole structure of a building that includes its interiors and exteriors. The architecture plan focuses on the electrical and plumbing requirements, lightening plan for each room, exterior design elements, and the interior architecture, trim, millwork and ceiling finishes.
The greater part of the dividers were canvassed with block in territories nearer to the ground for additional steadiness and quality. In the development of the Pantheon, the dividers were block confronted concrete; in the lower levels, where quality and strength was required. The solid contained substitute layers of chunks of travertine and tufa, and as they rose and required helping the travertine was supplanted by broken block. The structure of the Pantheon itself is included a progression of curves. By utilizing curves in the development of the building, it exhibits the Romans comprehension of weight appropriation and its significance in building materials.
Ceramics and cements are the best examples of brittle fracture. Ductile fracture is better than brittle fracture, because ductile fracture occurs over a period of time, while brittle fracture is fast, and can take place at lower stress levels than a ductile fracture. Ductile fracture involves plastic deformation in the area of an advancing crack, and is a slow process. b) Fatigue: It is defined as