The increase of the catalyst molar ratio to 0.05 and 0.10 mmol caused improvement in the rate of 1,2-cyclooctene oxidation with higher conversion compared to the catalytic amount 0.02 mmol of the VO-complexes. Unfortunately, the chemoselectivity was reduced by increasing the amount of the catalyst VO-complexes to be 65,
I concluded that as pH increases, the enzyme’s rate of reaction increases as well. For example, this is illustrated in the data by the fact that the liver at pH 9 released over 1000 more mL of oxygen than the liver at pH level 1. This also aligns with my expected results, because I predicted that pH would cause rate of reaction to increase. The rate of reaction increases along a curve, suggesting rate of reaction increases faster than pH increases. Also, the data shows that there is a very large difference between the amounts of oxygen released by the varying pHs, even though the difference in pH is not so great.
The extent of reaction was found to decrease with an increase in temperature from 50 to 60ºC. Because at high temperature, the active site of the enzyme got denatured and no more accessible for distinguish substrate 25. However, with an increase in the enzyme amount above 2 %, decreases the percentage conversion. This can be attributed to disruption of enzyme tertiary structure and denaturation at high temperature
An RER value of 0.85 indicates that the mixture of substrates being metabolised is around 50% fat and 50% CHO. The values for rest and 60W are around this value with 0.81 and 0.87, however when the wattage is increased again the RER values jump up to 0.91 at 120W, and 0.94 at 180W. This suggests that the substrate percentage is now leaning more towards CHO consumption and a RER value of >1.00 indicates 100% energy being produced from CHO under anaerobic
By leaving the acid and olefin in contact with no isobutane, polymerization occurred which increased acid consumption. After the shutdown, processing off-spec material also contributed to an increased acid consumption (see Figure 2, pg.4). Because of long residence times between the contactors and settlers, it will take time for the acid consumption to reduce to pre-shutdown levels. Acid spend strength has been higher than required for this period (see Figure 4, pg.5). Process Support recommends lowering the amount of fresh acid consumed to get closer to the spend target.
7. In this experiment, if the sucrose concentration were increased to 70 g/l would you expect sucrase activity to be significantly higher than the activity at 35 g/l. Explain your answer. No, because based on the results once it reached 30 g/l 35 g/l the results had stayed the same. There, the activity is lessening and coming to what looks like a plateau.
This is also supported by the fact that in the late stage of the experiment, the jars had been covered for so long, and that could be why the populations decreased so significantly. REASONING: I think that the reason that the protozoans’ population was larger in the larger jars is that a larger jar is a healthier habitat for the protozoans. I think this is because the protozoans are more spread out in a larger jar, so they can be separated from fungi and other
The melting point for lauric acid in this experiment was 50℃. Explain what is happening during each section of the graph for both cooling and heating in terms of particle motion and energy. When heat is added to a substance the particles in the substance vibrate faster and when vibrate faster the space between the particles increases. The hotter it gets the more the object expands and takes up more space. When a substance is cooled the particles vibrate less causing them to constrict and take up less space.
The increase in collisions between the substrate molecules is due to the increase in rate. Usually the rate of enzyme catalyzed reaction doubles for every ten degree rise in temperature. Increase in temperature beyond optimum level causes a sharp decline in the rate due to denaturation of the enzyme. At around 40 degrees Celsius most enzymes have an optimum temperature and when temperatures are reduced below freezing point enzymes are inactivated but they gain their catalytic properties once the temperature is increased. Figure: (www.bbc.co.uk) 2. pH – Enzymes function most effectively over a particular pH range which is quite often a narrow range.
This does not occur with every collision, so certain methods are used to increase the probability of a successful collision, and thus increasing the rate of reaction. One of these methods is increasing the concentrations of the reactants. Increased concentrations results in particles colliding more frequently, and more successful collisions will occur. On a graph, there would be a decreasing curve as the concentrations of reactants decreases as the reaction