The following paragraphs discuss the main feature of the existentialist view which includes; existence precedes essence, the absurd, facticity, authenticity, the Other and the Look, angst and dread, despair, etc. In addition, Sartre’s Theory will also be discussed whether it is appealing or discouraging. Existence precedes essence: This feature of existentialism simply state that human have to recognize that they are individuals, independently acting and responsible, and conscious beings, rather than fitting themselves in the preconceived categories. Furthermore, individuals must understand that their actual life compose their true essence. Therefore human beings, under their own consciousness create their own values and determine a meaning to their life.
Conversely, the Mind and all its attributes, thoughts, emotions and qualia, are composed of “Spiritual” matter, and as such, dwells in the immaterial realm and does not abide to the laws of physics or nature. Academic Philosopher Simon Blackburn better classifies in Think: A Compelling Introduction to Philosophy (51) the
In support to this I will use one of his other works in Essays in Existentialism entitled “Existentialism is a Humanism”. In the essay, Sartre mentions that man first of all exists, he encounters himself, surges up to the world, and defines himself afterwards. To begin with, man is nothing; man is not definable; man has no human nature; man simply is. With such notion it only means to say that man is nothing but that of which he makes of himself. Man attains essence once he imposes it upon himself.
He believes that law is essentially subject to a procedural morality. On Fuller 's view, human activity is driven to achieve goal or is purposive in the sense that people engage themselves in a particular activity because it helps them to achieve some desired goals. Insofar as human activity is essentially purposive, according to Fuller, particular human activities can only be understood in terms that make sense to their purposes and desired goals. Thus, since law system is essentially driven in such a way to achieve a purpose, it can be understood only in terms that explicitly acknowledge its essential values and
I would then conclude by saying that as an individual I have freedom and I should be responsible for everything. Differences between the in-itself and for-itself The main distinction between the two types of beings is consciousness. The fundamental property of consciousness is intentionality. Consciousness is not intentional but it is also transparent. This means that consciousness is always at some level aware of what it is doing.
In order to present a reality, one needs to presents through the concept of monism, dualism, physicalism and idealism. Monism is the independent existent of a single reality. It can be either mental or physical by nature. The fundamental existent of mental by nature is idealism, which is opposed to dualism, of mind and matter in reality. On the other hand, physicalism is the independent reduction to materiality.
He was searching for something that can’t be denied or doubted which lead him to our existence. In Descartes words “Cogito, ergo som,” which translates to, I think therefore I am, we cannot doubt our existence because we are the thoughts of our life, we are the mind behind our ideas. Descartes quickly questioned his existence, but he came to one conclusion that leads him to believe he may be in existence. The first question Descartes asked himself was what is he? He is a man with “a face, hands, arms and all the other equipment… I [Descartes] move myself around, sense and think -- which I trace back to my soul (pg.160 Bartaman).” One’s soul is the life of there existence, a body with a soul has to be in existence.
In part II of this paper, I will explain Descartes’ view regarding the human body in his Treatise on Man (L’homme) and its relation to his ontology and the To Mesland, 9 February 1645 letter. In the Treatise on Man (L’homme), Descartes claims that the human body is composed of of a soul and a body, and proceeds to provide a description of the body itself in order to demonstrate that mind and body would have to be joined to constitute a human body. In like manner, this description follows the same path as his ontology, in which Descartes argues that res cogitans and res extensa are the only elements of the human body. Similarly, Descartes’ description of the human body fits with his claim made in To Mesland, 9 February 1645 letter , claiming that a human body is whatever material is joined to a human mind. In the Treatise on Man (L’homme) (AT XI, 120-121.
Chapter 3 The Itinerarium Mentis in Deum Before proceeding to the main concern of this chapter which is the discussion of St. Bonaventure’s Itinerarium Mentis in Deum, the researcher first dwelled with Bonaventurean anthropology. Moreover, the anthropological thought of the Seraphic Doctor does not only pertain to man and its nature alone but it also speaks of its relation to God. In connection to that, one of the treatises made by the Seraphic Doctor regarding the relation of man to God is to be found in his treatise Itinerarium. In the prologue of this treatise, Bonaventure discussed the plan and the purpose of the Itinerarium which is basically to guide people in a mystical union. By mystical union, one can say that this track made by St. Bonaventure becomes a devotional tract but in fact, the articulation of an extremely sophisticated speculative system addressing a number of fundamental questions in epistemology, metaphysics, the philosophy of mind, dogmatic theology, and contemplative mysticism.