Freud also challenges the Enlightenment ideal that people are good and rational; he claims that people are not good and rational—that they are irrational and impure. He believed that society was fragile as well. The Enlightenment, with some exceptions, held majorly that humans are born rational and pure, and that if the people ruled the government as it was made to do, then society would be a utopia, but Freud believed the opposite—he did not have a view of a utopia. The Enlightenment tried to find the silver lining in everything possible, but Freud was a pessimist in respect to this as he saw the reality of society through the people themselves—their individual
According to Karl Marx, religion is one of those social institutions which are dependent upon the material and economic realities in a given society. It has no independent history but is instead the creature of productive forces. As Marx wrote, “The religious world is but the reflex of the real world”(Austin Cline). For Marx religion is primordially an active form of ideological alienation, where inverted world-consciousness and mystification become the essential elements of the alienate process (Nasir Khan:2015) . Based on Karl Marx ideas, Karl said that religion is the “opium of the people” (cite).
However, many critics have pointed out to lot of lacunae and inadequacies which surround the theory. Some of the criticisms of the Marxist Class theory are as follows: 1. Marx gives all importance to matter and ignores the role of human beings. Marx said that Men create history but not of their will! According to Marx, man is incapable of taking any decision on his own.
And also the feminist supporters believe that his theory to be sexiest. His issue of girls to develop ‘penis envy’ is very much criticized. Scientifically, Freud’s theory of psychosexual development is criticized as that Freud was personally fixated upon human sexuality, so he favored defining human development with a normative theory of psychological and sexual development. It is also said that the phallic stage is proved as controversial as the clinical observations of Oedipus Complex. Furthermore it is criticized that none of his psychosexual stages of development, any
Moreover, many believed his work was too focused on human sexuality, especially his focus on the Oedipus complex and children's sexual desire for parents. Some critics of Freud believe the memories and fantasies of childhood seduction Freud
During this process, Marx believed that through this system of mass production, laborers were stripped of individual imagination and as a result, left individuals feeling alienated to their own emotions and erotic feelings in order to maximize production and wealth. Although Karl Marx did not have much to say in regards to sex and sexuality, he strongly believed that the capitalist economy desexualizes human beings, because the only thing that matters is profit and making more to service the needs the economy demands. Consequently, sexuality is rigidly controlled for market success. In addition Marx stated, “ human nature including our sexuality, is shaped by society and changes historically” (Seidman 5). However, Karl Marx argues that “as we search for personal
Freud’s theory emphasizes dreams are associated with desires that are distasteful to the conscious mind; therefore, they can only exist in bewildering forms so that the content of the dream would not cause discomfort in people. The theory itself has a significant number of opponents. The opposition suggests dreams are produced by the brain in response to the sensory information the body receives during sleep, and they have no connection to the person’s thought and mind. Interestingly, the results of both Freud and Ferenczi’s dream analyses on their patients have helped substantiate dreams have more profound meaning. In fact, Freud discovered the significance of dreams by studying neurotic patients.
Marxist theory also helps us further our understanding of the achievement gap. We will interpret the achievement gap through the concepts of ALIENATION, SPECIES-BEING, and CLASS CONFLICT. Although these concepts pertain to critiques on capitalism, they remain useful and revealing to the U.S. education system, as this system itself was heavily influenced by capitalism. For example, there are bells to conduct the school day, grades to track student performance, incentives to outperform your peers, and many other aspects influenced by capitalism. Marxist theory allows us to examine how the organization of the school system either promotes or hinders the achievement gap.
Freud believes that religions are "illusions" based on their incapability to provide sufficient proofs. That religious beliefs cannot be explained by their relation to the truth, but instead its function to society. Emile Durkheim theorized that religion provided social cohesion -maintaining the stability in society -and social control to maintain society in social solidarity, showing similarities to Freud 's ideology. Like Durkheim, Freud believed that religion served a purpose, however, -contrary to religious peoples -not for the sake of spirituality, but rather for the functionality towards society. The purpose of Christianity through Freud 's theory on the birth of religion based on the psycho-sexual development in society will be examined,
Reading these publications can help them understand the Freudian theory more. One of Freud’s utmost influential works is “Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality”, in which he outlines his theory of Psychosexual Development. Another book is “Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious” or ‘Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum Unbewußten’, where Freud observed how jokes, most likely dreams, could be associated to the unconscious wishes, desires, or memories. This book is based on his theory of Personality- the id, ego, and superego- which, according to Freud superego allows the ego to engender and express humor. Another book is ‘Introduction to Psychoanalysis’ or ‘Vorlesungen zur Einführung in die Psychoanalyse’, which is one of the eminent works of Freud.