Assessments: peer and self-assessment are crucial in providing opportunity to metacognitive thinking about education, in addition to assess own progression for meaningful productive feedback. 5. Established learning: teacher and student roles in the learning process should be established. Teachers need to create an environment where student can establish trust and mutual respect, as well as experience harmless constructive feedback. As defined by Bell & Cowie (2001), there are nine characteristics of formative assessment: responsiveness; source of evidence; tacit process; use of professional knowledge and experience; integral measures between teaching and learning; assessments by teacher and student; purpose; appropriateness of process; and predicaments.
Cooper & Simonds (1999) ????? viewed it as an instructional strategy which is concerned with teacher-student relationships and classroom communication. Cayanus (2005) stated that for giving examples, elaborating more, making the teaching materials clear, or spending time, some teachers often disclose or give information about themselves. Cayanus, Martin, and Myers (2004) ????? ?mentioned that teacher self-disclosure plays an important role in the class.
Ongoing informal and formal classroom assessment: is the bond that holds teaching and learning together, allows educators to monitor teaching effectiveness and student learning, can motivate and shape learning and instruction, can help teachers gauge student mastery of required skills, can help teachers determine whether students are prepared for tests that are used for high-stakes decisions, can help students improve their own
Reflective teaching is a process of self- assessment and self- observation. Through reflective teaching, the teachers can explore and discover their own ideas and practices, which can make the teachers more proficient and skilled in teaching. Teaching is an intricate and highly accomplished process, and teachers must implement self evaluation (reflection) to make learning effective. The paper highlights the importance of reflective teaching and its impact on pedagogical process as well as language learners. It focuses on the teacher’s ideas; classroom practices to make teaching more refine and acquire a rich experience by amending the drawbacks.
It is a process of gathering and interpreting evidence to make judgments about student learning. It can be used to practice, plan curriculum, and to reflect on teachers teaching method. It also help us to provide information to parents, children and also administrators. Different ways of assessment are being used to allow the teacher to decide which instructional strategies are essential and which need to be changed. Formative, summative, traditional, alternate are ways of assessment.
Likewise, Brown (2004) states “assessment is an integral part of teaching-learning cycle” (p. 16). There are a number of reasons for assessment the knowledge of which would provide insights into the way teachers employ given methods which are appropriate for their pedagogic purposes. Race, Brown, and Smith (2004) suggest the most common reasons for assessing students. They remark that assessment provides students with constructive feedback, thereby resulting in their improvement. It also raises learners’ awareness about their current abilities and achievements.
Assessment and evaluation is an instrument that is used to measure the performance of teachers and students. It is an integral part of teaching and learning process. Assessment aids in decision making as it determines whether or not the goal of education are being met. It plays a major role in how students learn, their motivation to learn and how teachers teach. It also enables one to think: “are we teaching what we think we are teaching?” “Are students learning what they are supposed to be learning?” These are relevant question that one should ask when it comes to assessment; therefore, this essay will highlight on the role of assessment in teaching and learning.
One example is that psychomotor skills of performance-based task among the students in their classes. A good lesson allows a valid and reliable criterion reference of performance. A lesson log is a printed set of guidelines that distinguishes performance or products of different quality. According to Adorinda R. Monje-Sarmiento (2008), Evaluation is a primary part of the education process. The teacher should lead every experience in terms of the needs and interests of the students as seen in life situations.
Feedback can provide students with information about strengths and weaknesses of responses, the outcomes achieved and students’ performance in relation to standards and to other students. For students, effective feedback on responses to assessment tasks should include: what was expected from the task? Like meaningful information about the quality of work, clear statements about how to improve, correction of misunderstandings, reinforcement of what has been done well. For teachers, effective feedback enables them to evaluate: teaching and learning programs, teaching strategies, assessment strategies, assessment task design, marking guidelines. (John Gore- CEO,
c) Literature review In the research, a number of teaching approaches and strategies will be reviewed. For instance, pedagogical approaches in second language teaching, Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach, task-based language teaching approach, content-based language teaching approach and instructional strategies. These theories or approaches written by other educators will definitely be helpful to assess modern practices the ESL teachers are now using. d) Research plan and methodology A mixed-method exploratory research design (see Figure 1) will be chosen to better comprehend ESL teachers’ teaching approaches. A mixed-method exploratory research design means to lay results of a qualitative study as a foundation to further develop a quantitative study.