What is culture? By the time we step into this world and become aware of our surroundings, we are frequently fed with the dos and don’ts by the members of our family or that of the society’s. The allowance or impediment of certain things depends upon many factors. These factors encapsulate to form a culture. Definition of culture: Culture can be defined as a set of beliefs, values, principles, outlooks, suppositions and perspectives that discerns inhabitants of one society from others.
‘Social norms’ are the foundational notions of the society (Horne 2007), defined as – “that each individual in the society finds it in his interest to follow the social standard behaviour”. i.e., norms are the “acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members” (Robbins 1989), which effectively controls the individual and group behaviour in certain social situations (Hackman 1976). It refers to a form of informal social control (Feldman 1984) that obviates the need for more formal, legal and institutionalised sanctions. Adding to it, Onyx and Bullen (2000) defines that, “generally unwritten but commonly understood formulas determining the expected pattern of behaviour in a given social context which forms
The word “culture” can refer to a traditional dress or the food of one’s country; however, it can also refer to an individual’s roots where common values, behaviors, and beliefs are shared and passed down. The word “identity” can be extracted from personal and shared knowledge. It is personal as we undergo first-hand experience, but also shared, as we take part in discussions or listen to lectures in school. We form identity the minute we are born, and develop it during our lifetime through external factors. “Experiential knowledge” is first-hand experience, and is a crucial process of obtaining knowledge or sometimes even the truth.
Social problems are the issues that may or may not affect society directly. It may affect the design of any individual within the society. Certain social problems are based on what is going within a community; whether is pollution, injustice, crime et cetera. In value conflict theory, it is believed that for an issue to be seen or recognize as a social problem, it must get attention from the overall population; authorities or prestigious individual within the community most recognize and exposed the issue as a social problem. Three different prototypes are found within value conflict theory: physical, ameliorative and moral problems.
Theoretical Review As theoretical review, I read, through different books, journals, and articles for language learning theories related to my research topic. I found that Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is closely related with my study, which I discussed below. Social Cognitive Theory Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a theory of psychology, which provides a clear foundation for classroom interventions designed to improve students ' learning. Bandura (1986) states that in social cognitive theory, learning from the effects of actions, is a special case of observational learning. This theory states that students learn through direct experience, observation, and modeling.
The approaches include; case study, ethnography, life history, case history, phenomenology, grounded theory etc. The way I collected data for my research studies, interacted with my research participants, the nature of my research questions, data analysis and dissemination of the findings, I explored that I am qualitative-minded. I believe that knowledge is socially constructed and both are interlinked.
Culture is the mold of a group of people which distinguishes them from other groups of people, such as their values, beliefs, religion, universal theories and acquisition of knowledge. Culture can be broken into different aspects and each aspect has subcategories. Some aspects of culture are languages, arts & literature, religion, customs & traditions, social organization, economic system, forms of government and many more. In class we discussed Language, food & drink, social life, physical appearance, business and routines. Language is the foundation of culture.
Social Norms are the somewhat unwritten rules about how to act or how to behave. They provide us with an expected idea of how to behave in a particular social group or culture. They are the accepted standards of behaviors in particular groups, which may range from family, to friends, schoolmates, workmates, and other citizens. Because of these norms and their underlying implication, the people who do not follow them are shunned or ignored. Therefore, sociologists have given the definition, “Social norms are rules developed by a group of people that specify how people must, should, may, should not, and must not behave in various situations.” According to American sociologist William Graham Sumner, there are some norms labeled as “mores” which encompasses all norms that are necessary in a society.
Similar to the earth strata, sociologists also think that there are existing different layers or strata in human society. Thereby, social stratification may define as a division of society into strata. It divided people into different groups and their lives are structured according to these groupings. In one word, when individuals and groups are ranked, members of a particular layer have a common identity and they possess a similar life style. Lifestyles include such matters like the residential areas in every community which have gradations of prestige-ranking, mode of housing, means of recreation, the kinds of dress, and so on.
Throughout the course of the class there has been an over sight of various concepts regarding group behavior that have drawn me to recognize the importance in group interaction and the assessing group behaviors. Learning about the topic has also led me to notice the type of behaviors I have in groups, as well as things I can change to allow me to become a better communicator in group settings. In society one will find themselves working within groups or organizations on occasions and the result maybe be positive or negative at times. Becoming knowledgeable about the subject of group behaviors and reflecting upon experiences will help one be prepared in making the best of the situation when working with others. Everyone has different characteristics,