Reading is a receptive skill by which we receive information but the process of reading also needs speaking skills, so that we can pronounce the words correctly that we read . Reading is something that we can do by our own that broadens our vocabulary therefore helping in improving other three skills of speaking writing and listening. So reading is highly valuable skill and activity, so it is advised that English learners should try to read as much as possible in English. During reading, we make predictions as we read and then confirm or revise those predictions. After reading, it allows the reader to retell the story, discuss the elements of a story, answer questions and/or compare it to another text.
Introduction Since EFL reading carries great weight in foreign language teaching, great efforts have been exerted to improve students’ reading ability. And a good understanding of how students learn and how the teachers teach becomes a key point in the changing society. Teachers are required to change their teaching styles to meet the needs of reading teaching. The teacher’s role is changing. To improve the quality of reading teaching, four concrete problems should be solved.
Reading involves garnering knowledge, information and meaning from any literary text. Readers are encouraged to be active in constructing meaning while reading text. Thus, after reading has taken place, readers should have a clear understanding of what has been written and they will then be able to transfer information they need. However, many students still have challenges with comprehension; especially when they have to comprehend words, sentences or an entire text. If people do not understand what they read, it becomes a frustrating, pointless exercise in word calling.
Written communication refers to messages that are transmitted to receivers in writing. Learning good writing skills is more difficult than learning to speak a language. Use of correct grammar and appropriate words is crucial or it can lead to miscommunication. When we speak, the tone of our voice, the facial expressions, eye contact etc make it easier to understand in the right sense. Written English is more challenging since words and sentences alone have to be able to convey the meaning.
To understand a text a reader should not only possess linguistic knowledge but also general knowledge of the world and the knowledge activated during reading. Therefore, students’ background knowledge should be activated before reading the text. Understanding the text depends on the schema of the reader while reading. According to An (2013), schema theory guides readers as they make sense of new experiences, enable them to make a prediction about what they might expect to experience in a given context. Reading comprehension schema is often used to assist second language learning.
It encourages a higher level of thinking compared to the basal level of instruction for students, predicts events and reacts to characters in stories. It gives learners the opportunity to think deeply and share their thoughts about a story. Reading-based instructions enhance vocabulary, improve reading comprehension, and language growth. However, there are several disadvantages of using authentic reading materials such as difficulty in finding a variety of books suited to every learner in a diverse classroom, wherein learners varying levels of vocabulary and comprehension abilities are considered. Moreover, it gives additional work for the teacher to look for stories relevant to students’ lives.
In the introduction of “How to Read Literature Like a Professor” , Thomas C. Foster focuses on the grammar of literature and the qualities of a professorial reader. He asserts that practise is crucial to learn how to read literature in a more rewarding way. In addition, he defines main elements of the context such as pattern , symbols, and conventions. The purpose of Foster appears to be informing students who is beginning to be introduced to literature. Although Foster’s style is slightly condescending, he utilizes the conventions of literature quite well, and mentions the arbitrariness of these conventions in a sensible way.
This form of reading can play an important role when it comes to developing comprehension. According to the TME 301 course reader, learners who want to learn a second language for example English, learners will need comprehensive input (TME course reader 301). This means that learners need to get plenty exposure to reading materials in the language they want to obtain. Krashen (1981) argues that learners can acquire language on their own if they receive plenty of exposure to and if it’s done in a relaxed environment. Schools should make room for extensive reading in schools.
1.4 Significance of the Study The findings of the study will import the benefit of EFL teachers considering that complex sentence comprehension plays an important role in grasping the meaning and interpreting the text reading. The results of the study will be also useful to EFL teachers in providing teaching process to help their students improve linguistic competence in acquiring dependent clauses so that students will correctly comprehend and interpret complex sentence in text reading. 1.5 Scope and Delimitation This study is focus on acquiring full and reduced forms of dependent clauses; adverb clause, adjective or relative clause, and noun clause by applying explicit and implicit instruction. Moreover, the study is confined to comparing the significant difference of the effect on applying explicit and implicit instruction. This study is limited to 80 12th-grade students both male and female during the second semester of the academic year 2015 at Suraphinphitthaya School.
Increasing reading comprehension by jigsaw technique Najmeh Farhang Nia Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Abstract Reading comprehension (RC) is a major component of language learning, and finding an appropriate and effective way teaching it has been considered by many researchers. One effective way for achieving this goal can be using the jigsaw reading technique. This study aimed to determine whether co-learning strategy can affect RC through the use of the Jigsaw reading technique for learners who are in need of learning English for their present work through a tailored course that combines the language and the skills they need today with what they need to make progress in the longer term to reach a professional level. To achieve