Survival 101: Living without A Brain The oceans, with its ongoing currents carrying microscopic animals and protists known as plankton, have provided many aquatic animals with a ready source of food necessary for survival. The continuous motion of water also allows for the removal of metabolic wastes from these animals, preventing the accumulation of these materials within the animal. Due to the high heat capacity of water, as well as the large volume of seas and oceans, the temperature of marine habitats tend to remain relatively stable. Osmotic concentration of seawater is also similar to the bodily fluids of animals, allowing fluid and salt balance to be more easily maintained. These benefits have thus enabled the survival of organisms without cephalization, that is, the development of a head, where the sensory organs are concentrated. Hence, this essay will look at the adaptations in the uncephalized cnidarians and poriferans (sponges), to see how they are adapted to living in the oceans despite having not undergone cephalization.
Comparing Adaptations in association of cells, body structure, and removal of wastes The oceans have allowed for the survival of sponges as well as cnidarians. Both phyla consist of diplobastic organisms with no coeloms or cephalization. In addition, in both phyla, the exchange of gaseous products occurs by diffusion. However, the association of the cells in the two phyla, as well as their body shapes, level of organisation and removal of