another glass cell of similar dimensions containing the colorless solvent). Hence, for practical purposes the equation becomes I0=Ia+It P. Bouguer (1729) and J. H. Lambert (1760) investigated the effect of the thickness of the absorbing medium on the intensity of light. Lambert’s law states that when a monochromatic light passes through a transparent medium, the rate of decrease in the intensity with the thickness of the medium, the rate of decrease in the intensity with the thickness of the medium is proportional to the intensity of the incident light. The differential form of the law is given as -dI0/dt=kI0 Where I0 is the intensity of the incident light, t is the thickness of the medium (also called the optical path length), and k is the proportionality factor. The integrated form of the above equation is given
Refraction: Refraction occurs when light enters a more or less optically dense medium, which therefore has a different refractive index (measure of the velocity light can travel at in the medium compared to in a vacuum in which it can travel at 2.9 x 108ms-1). This causes the light’s speed to increase or decrease, which results in the rays bending towards or away from the normal, so the position of the image formed is dependent on the refractive indices of the two media. For refraction to occur, the light rays have to hit the boundary between media at an angle to the normal (which is 90 degrees to the boundary), otherwise no change in direction will occur, only a change in velocity. Therefore, if the light rays hit the boundary between the different media at a perpendicular (90 degree) angle, they will continue to go straight. This occurs because the angle at which the rays hit the boundary (called the angle of incidence) determines the angle at which the rays will refract (called the angle of refraction).
Pressure builds up behind the shock wave, compressing the air in the tube and slowing the rate at which it flows through the tube. Normal shock front The air passes through the tube slower than the speed the tube passes through the surrounding air. As a consequence, air
This light then travels past the flame created by an atomizer. Where the atomizer essentially vaporizes an aqueous solution containing the metal ion(s), converting the input ionic solution from into atoms (IE: Na+Na). These atoms, are then shot with a specific ‘matching’ monochromatic light from the selected cathode lamp, whereby some the specific light is absorbed while passing by, This means that not all light will make it through the flame(IE less is detected then what is shot initially). After passing through the flame, the light is then filtered through a monochromator or prism, which works to select a specific wavelength of light, filtering all other unnecessary / unwanted wavelengths out. After this light is sufficiently filtered, the remaining ‘wanted’ wavelength of light is projected into a photomultiplier, which is an instrument that can collect, amplify and then finally measure the amount of light that was detected.
Dalton’s law, as described before, states that the sum of the partial pressures of each component in a solution – two or more volatile compounds – is equal to the total pressure. As this now includes more than one compound when separating volatile substances from each other, fractional distillation must be used. Fractional distillation, which can be viewed as a series of simple distillations, is a method used to separate volatile impurities from its solvent. The main difference is that a column is introduced between distillation flask and head to separate the liquids from each other. This column – of a large surface area with glass or ceramic – provides ample contact between the vapor and liquid phases.
In seismic data, depth is normally measured in two-way travel time in milliseconds or seconds. This is the time the sound waves use from it leaves the source until it hits the reflector and returns to the receiver. With the increase in depth, the frequency of the signal will decrease while the velocity and wavelength will increase. This means that with an increase in depth the seismic resolution gets poorer. The high frequencies are reflected from shallow reflectors, while the low frequencies reach further down.
The lines which can be drawn at any flow field with the inclination of μ are said Mach lines of Mach waves. In the nonuniform flow field, μ varies with M and the Mach lines are curved. In the field of fluid flow at any point P, there is always two lines which intersect the streamline at the angle μ. Considering in the three- dimensional flow, the flow of supersonic stream is always associated with two families of mach lines represented in plus and minus signs. The mach lines with + sign run to the right of the streamline when viewed through the flow direxn and the lines with “–“ sign run to the left.
For instance, at increased temperature, amorphous semicrystalline solid molecules will become less viscous and have enough freedom of motion to rearrange the molecular structure spontaneously into crystalline form. The Value of crystallisation temperature, Tc, indicates this as an exothermic process. Conversely, as the temperature increases to melting temperature, Tm, the sample will have enough energy to melt, indicated as an endothermic curve. Similarly, glass transition temperature, Tg, will be reached as the temperature of an amorphous solid increases. On the DSC curve, Tg appears as a step in the baseline of the recorded DSC
How ocular artifacts are formed? Ocular artifacts are formed by any type of movement of eye; this can be explained by the type of the movement of the eyeand even by the blink of an eye.Here, the Front polar (Fp) and Front (F) are the electrodes which placed near or above the ocular region such that, these electrodes are mainly affected with the ocular artifacts. Considering the eye as the dipole which can state as that front part cornea is more positively charged than the retina. This makes the electrode to become more positively charge than the brain potential when the cornea reached near in the eye movement. Vertical, Horizontal eye movement When the eye ball moves vertically i.e., up and down, and side to side then the potential from