Assignment 2 CVE80006 Infrastructure Deterioration Modelling Concrete Crack Diagnosis Assignment The phenomenon of cracking in concrete may depend on several factors such as the amount of loading, rate of bleeding, amount of stress and strain generated in concrete, the composition of concrete and method of fabrication. The cracking of concrete has become severe due to advance construction process which demands high strength structure requiring an increase in stress, strain, and deflection resistance. The cracks in concrete are mainly classified as structural crack and non-structural crack. Structural Crack - Shear Crack and Extra Compression Loading Crack Figure 1. Shear Crack Figure 1 is an example of shear crack found at Swinburne
There is another important difference between P-waves and S-waves. Both can pass through solid rock, only P-waves can pass through gases and liquids. Some of the effects of earthquake are businesses that might get jeopardize, people might break in and steal goods and ruin the business and that will cause economic loss, people belongings will get destroyed and many people might get injured or worse. Tsunamis on the other hand are commonly associated with earth quakes because they are caused by earthquakes under
This is because the rainwater travels down to the sedimentary rocks and dissolves them creating a karst region. Also, if rain can't replenish the water table, it can either increase or decrease. When it decreases, it causes drought, which leads to water becoming unstable. Therefore, climate change and other factors trigger sinkholes to
The excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is related to climate change; this affects the environment through increased temperatures, extreme events such as droughts and floods as well as a rise in sea levels (Lebon, 2009). When volcanic gas enters the atmosphere, the water droplets formed become contaminated with that substance and when it rains, the rain that falls is acidic. Acid rain causes negative effects to surrounding plant life as it is corrosive making it useless to animal species that rely on it as a food source (Lebon, 2009). Other environmental impacts associated with tectonic movements are earthquakes. This kind of deformation is classified as natural disasters and causes destruction through flooding, rifts and collapsing of large buildings in cities.
This will also reduce the skin factor and likewise, the cost disposal for cleaning processes of casings and pipes has also decline ( Ostroot, et al. 2007; Bennion D. B. , Thomas, Bietz & Bennion D. W. , 1998; Bennion, D. B., Lunan & Saponja, 1998; Mitchell, 2007; Akdeniz, 2012 ; Bennion D. B. & Thomas, 1994). On the other side of this discussion, overbalance drilling has a very high differential sticking rate occurring in the well. Differential sticking takes place when the drilling filtrate left the wellbore and forms an impermeable barrier or in its petroleum term, a cake.
Fractures caused because of water pressure due to the brittle nature of the rock can be seen, this is the jointing in the basalt. We walked down the creek path to closely observe the basalt structure and saw a complex joint system, which we believe after further reading happened after the lava solidified into basalt it underwent contraction due to cooling. This shrinkage resulted in tensile strain to be applied on the rock mass, because the upward and downward tension could be put up by the molten elastic rock underneath the crust whereas the horizontal stress caused the outer crust to crack, which resulted to form a joint system and horizontal pipe like structure
The cause of this volcanic eruption is due to the subduction of the Manila plate, this is a destructive plate boundary. The subduction increases subterranean pressure which gets released through volcanoes, which in this case was Mt. Pinatubo. The eruption was violent and caused lahar, pyroclastic flow and a sulfuric ash cloud that reduced global temperatures by one degree Fahrenheit. (The 1991 Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption)
it is required in huge amount and this are obtained by mining rivers which effects the river by lowering the stream bottom, Depletion of sand in the stream bed and along coastal areas causes the deepening of rivers and estuaries, and the enlargement of river mouths and coastal inlets. It may also lead to saline-water intrusion from the nearby sea. The effect of mining is compounded by the effect of sea level rise. Any volume of sand exported from streambeds and coastal areas is a loss to the
When the beam is subjected to cyclic loading, the graphs are shown in Figure 7. The energy absorption capacity was calculated as the area under the hysteresis loop of the load deflection diagrams. The cumulative energy absorption capacity of the beam-column joint was obtained by adding the energy absorption capacity of the joint during each cycle considered. In this study total energy absorption capacity was calculated from the each cycle Peak load verses deflection curve. 4.2 First crack and ultimate load All the specimens were initiated the crack at beam column junction after the first crack load, further increase of load the cracks started to widen and developed in upward direction of beam.
Classical buildings on the Acropolis in Athens show extensive decay or chemical weathering that accelerated in the 20th century as a result of air pollution in the form of with SO2 and NOx emissions, and other acid producing substances in the atmosphere. This problem has escalated to such an extent that buildings require restorations, protective coatings on statues, and other monuments have to be replaced quite frequently at very expensive costs per year. Stone decays about twice as fast in cities than in rural areas. This damage is mainly as a result of acid rain, humidity in the atmosphere, as well as from corrosive groundwater. This means that measuring the rates of stone decay can tell us something about the changes in the pH of rain and groundwater in different regions and years.