Assessments: peer and self-assessment are crucial in providing opportunity to metacognitive thinking about education, in addition to assess own progression for meaningful productive feedback. 5. Established learning: teacher and student roles in the learning process should be established. Teachers need to create an environment where student can establish trust and mutual respect, as well as experience harmless constructive feedback. As defined by Bell & Cowie (2001), there are nine characteristics of formative assessment: responsiveness; source of evidence; tacit process; use of professional knowledge and experience; integral measures between teaching and learning; assessments by teacher and student; purpose; appropriateness of process; and predicaments.
Pedagogy is important because it demonstrate how the teaching and learning occurs. Students must build up their own understandings through teachers’ and their own considered learning experiences. Teacher’s subject matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge are vital to good teaching and student understanding (Buchmann, 1982, 1983; Tobin & Garnett, 1988). In Shulman's theoretical framework, teachers need to master two types of knowledge: content and knowledge of the curricular development. Teacher must integrate teaching strategies that will help students to assimilate knowledge such as supportive classroom environment, recognition of difference and connectedness to the wider world.
Differentiation, with respect to instruction, means tailoring it to meet individual needs of the students. Teachers can differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction. Teachers differentiate the four classroom elements based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile. (Tomlinson 2000). Differentiated instruction can be known as an organizing framework in teaching and learning which calls for a major restructuring in the classroom and syllabus, if done in the proper way, its benefits will transgress the costs.
In a constructivist classroom the teacher is perceived as one of the learners who is more experienced and acts like a ‘guide’ to enable the students to explore some new fields of knowledge. According to Brooks and Brooks (2012) the teacher tries to understand the way learners’ brains work, and she or he leads them to construct and combine the newly-gained knowledge with what students already know from the previous experience. Experiential learning, made by American theorist David Kolb is learning through reflection on doing and which is often contrasted with rote or didactic learning. It is related to, but not synonymous with, experiential education, action learning, adventure learning, free choice learning, cooperative learning, and service learning. While there are relationships and connections among all these theories of education, importantly they are also separate terms with separate meanings (Nsamenang & Tchombe 2011) Thus, one makes discoveries and experiments with knowledge firsthand as a result of assessment, instead of hearing or reading about others' experiences.
(Ritualo, 2000). This work would serve educators, particularly in assessing students, Supervisors and Curriculum Planners to find understanding the outcome of assessment (traditional and authentic) on science appreciative and learning conclusions of scholars. Classroom assessment practices are based on teacher beliefs, training, knowledge and skills in educational assessment. Understanding teachers’ classroom assessment practices remains pivotal for informed educational decisions that can be made about students’ learning outcomes. The results of this study may provide valuable insights for understanding teachers’ classroom assessment practices and needs for teachers in and other parts of the world.
The lesson wheel is also focused on the learner by means of the SMART task that is formulated according to the ability and proficiency of the learners. In the process of planning a lesson with help of the lesson wheel, the learners’ strengths and weaknesses are taken into consideration. On account of learners constructing their own meaning of information, the information that they have to deal with should interest them. The pertinent question is the part of the lesson wheel that grasps the learners’ interest and therefore it is possible for them to construct meaning from the lesson. Vygotsky introduced the concept of the More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) (2016:61) and hence learners do not necessarily have to gain knowledge from the teacher.
Likewise, this theory often described in a school education field. Richardson V (1997) mentioned that the classroom from this theory should be taught as follows. The teacher must pursuit asking students questions continually to encourage their intellectual curiosity along with a curriculum which is based on big concepts rather than specific knowledge. Also, the interactive learning should help the student to build their own knowledge that the assessment should be included this
Teaching remains a complex process, involving entwining knowledge of instructional skills and content, providing evidence learning has occurred. The evaluation of a students’ performance provides the educator with knowledge of learners’ skills and attributes in effectively completing coursework of an academic program. The higher educational institutes primary goal remains teaching, and the necessity to measure teaching effectiveness exist crucial. The evaluation of an educators’ performance provides the faculty and administration with knowledge of educators’ effectiveness, applications, and consistency as evidence of teaching performance and student learning. Literature Review According to Delandshere (2002), and assessment of a learner, completed
They defined formative assessment as a concept that teachers use information from activities to determine the next steps in learning and teaching. In their viewpoints, the information from a formative assessment actually is used to adjust instruction ‘to meet students’ needs”. In other words, these adjustments were not only to be made in the instruction but they needed to work. Likewise, Brown (2004) also stated this point in his definition. He defines formative assessment as “evaluating students in the process of ‘forming’ their competencies and skills with the goal of helping them to continue that growth process”, (p
In education, the ultimate purpose of the teacher is to help students to learn, often in a school. The aim is a course of study, planning of lesson, including learning and thinking skills. All these skills referred to pedagogical skills of a teacher. The teaching profession demands full devotion towards continues learning. The effective learning depends upon quality of teaching which requires individuals who are academically able and who care about the well-being of children and youth.