The theories of learning have undertaken important developments over the years to determine how best an educator can develop their students to survive in the 21st century. The major advancements in education have focused its attention on learning that concentrates on skills and competencies (Dumont et al, 2010). “Learning is a process of active engagement with experiences and involves the development or deepening of skills, knowledge, understanding, values, ideas and feelings” (Museums, Libraries and Archives Council, 2008). Many theorists have realized that the classroom should not only be a particular set of education experiences that develop students academically but additionally to enhance their social skills, which are critical to work
Teachers can discover what their value orientations are by completing a value orientation inventory (Ennis & Chen). Teachers should complete this inventory occasionally as they find their values have changed and this will have an impact on how they plan and teach a lesson. According to a study on the influence of teacher value orientations on curriculum planning within the parameters of a theoretical framework, carried out in the Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park 20742, value orientations greatly affect teacher’s lesson content. The study surveyed twenty five teachers using the value orientations inventory during seven in-service sessions. The results of the study found that “weak disciplinary mastery and strong social reconstruction teachers included more opportunities for shared decision making than did other teachers”.
We were also going to research the learners’ opinions as well as teachers’ opinions on the topic through the use of articles. How are we going to do it? We made use of questionnaires to complete our research. The teachers received a questionnaire to answer and the rest of the research would be done through articles so that we could have opinions from both sides. Who is going to do
Based on the assumptions of socio-constructivist theories of learning, educators attempted to re-conceptualize teaching as a profession (Murray, 1996), which might be facilitated via reflective teaching learning practices. According to these theories, teaching has to start in student teachers’ reflective learning practices at the teacher education (Ostorga, 2006). Learning at the teacher education, moreover, is promoted when teacher candidates are provided with multiple learning opportunities to apply what they have learnt in meaningful contexts (Edward et al, 2002; Merrill, 2002) through the applications and integrations of classroom knowledge with actual teaching practices. This has to be initiated and accomplished through exercising reflective
Whenever people are asked to provide a definition of the teaching-learning process, they usually describe a traditional setting where the teacher is in front of the class, giving lectures while students listen attentively, the teacher pouring knowledge into the students’ brain (Scrivener, 2005, pp. 15-16). Nevertheless, with the advancements and the development of methodologies and approaches in the field of applied linguistics, this traditional view has been changing gradually. At present, teachers seem to be seen differently by people as they have a more active and engaging role in the teaching-learning process. Understandably, due to the professionalization of teachers and development in teaching theories, there should be more effective
If you want to change student learning then change the methods of assessment. (Brown, 1997: 7) in Rust (2002) The impact of assessment in student learning. Why do we assess? Assessment supports the growth and development of learners. According to King, F.J., Goodson, L., & Rohani, F., (1998), learners become active participants in learning and assessment, understand the criteria that are used for assessment activities, are involved in self-evaluation, set individual targets for themselves, reflect on their learning and thereby experience improved self-esteem.
As a result, they came up with a variety of recommendations in line with wide-ranging problems of the institutions. For instance, a research conducted by Meseret (2012) was confined teachers and students perceptions and practices in Haramaya University. His finding showed that instructors had favourable perceptions about the contribution of task-based writing to the development of students’ writing ability, but they lacked confidence to implement task-based writing because of their students’ poor writing. Tewodros (2014) carried out a study on the writing tasks in grade nine English textbook based on task-based approach principles in Gode SOS high school, and revealed that there was a variety of task-based writing tasks were explicitly provided in grade nine English textbook, which were categorized under controlled guided and free types of writing tasks. His study also revealed that only few writing tasks were provided in the textbook that encourage learners to perform writing through process approach to writing which was considered as major limitation of the writing tasks.
It is very necessary on the part of the teacher to perform effectively in order to bring out the desired outcomes of the learners and this requires effective and appropriate use of teaching skills in classroom. Teachers are asked not only to present information, but to help students grow in creativity, curiosity, social adjustment, problem solving, and responsibility; teachers are also asked to help students develop a good attitude toward classmates and their school. The accomplishment of these goals has a greater chance if teachers use effective teaching competencies. In the fast changing world of the early 21st century, secondary education is also changing; the role of teachers will also change. New social challenges and demands towards education and teachers, change schools into institutions with modern aims and social contracts.
Some of the studies were devoted to the examination of language teachers ' personality constructs that may influence on their job performance or their students ' academic achievement. Self efficacy is one of such issues and concerns investigated by many researchers. Some of these studies are presented in this section. Self efficacy refers to people’s ideas, feelings, and perceptions about their potential to act at a given level of success and accomplishment (Tschannen-Moran, Woolfolk Hoy, & Hoy, 1998). These beliefs influence how much effort people make, how long they continue in the face of problems, how much they tolerate failures, and how much stress they experience in dealing with challenging situations.
Richards and Lockhart (1996) note that a reflective approach to teaching is "one in which teachers and student teachers gather data about teaching, observe their manners, beliefs, theories and teaching practices, and utilize the information achieved as a foundation for critical reflection about teaching"(p.1). It is an approach to teaching and to teacher education which is based on the statement that teachers can improve their understanding of teaching and the quality of their own teaching by reflecting critically on their teaching experiences. A reflective teacher is as one who assesses the origins, principles and consequences of work in classroom. As a result of these focused discussions a teacher is able to better understand practice and be able to take steps to develop practice (Rose, 2007). As Griffiths (2000) clarifies, reflection-in-action occurs when “professionals are faced with a circumstances which they experience as distinctive or containing a constituent of surprise.