Just as God inspired the Scriptures to teach doctrine, so God inspired leaders throughout the history of the church to introduce additional doctrines and practices. The collective writings of the early church “fathers,” the decisions of the ecumenical councils, and the decisions of the popes constitute this authoritative church tradition. The council included as part of the Bible the Apocrypha, books from the inter-testamental period that the Jews and the Protestants excluded. The Council of Trent officially pronounced eleven books of the Apocrypha to be Scripture. The result is that the Roman Catholic Bible today includes in the Old Testament seven extra books and four additions to existing books.
Calvinism is known for being a protestant religion, which means it 's a reformed religion. Reformed by protestant John Calvin. People who believed in Calvinism are called “Calvinists” though Calvinists still believe in the Same God as Christians do, but they have different rules than the other Christian and the Catholics. John Calvin, born on July 10 1509, and died on May 27 1564. He was known for being the successor for Martin Luther, and was known for reforming the Catholic Church, and renaming his Catholic religion Calvinism, he was also a theologist, one of the most recognized ones.
While Calvin was preparing for a career as a priest, he became influenced by humanistic learning. Leaving the clergy career, Calvin trained to become a humanist lawyer. John Calvin then experienced a sudden conversion causing him to break away from the Roman Catholic Church, and flee to Switzerland. “In 1536, he published the landmark text Institutes of the Christian Religion, an early attempt to standardize the theories of Protestantism.” John Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion is said to have become “the single most important statement of Protestant belief.” Much like Martin Luther, Calvin believed that salvation was not received by indulgences or good works but through faith in Jesus Christ. John Calvin also emphasized the sovereignty of the scriptures and taught about predestination.
Before the reformists came into play, Roman Catholicism was the predominant form of Christianity in Europe. The Church was still in a high position of power from the previous period, the Middle Ages, a fact that would soon change. Famous figures such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Henry VIII would question the Church 's authority and forever change how Christianity was viewed. After Martin Luther, there would be a new branch of Christianity known as Protestantism. He redefined the Christian Doctrine.
During the time of Protestant Reformation within the Church, John Calvin, an influential religious reformer throughout Europe, having studied Martin Luther's teachings, decided to establish his own religious sect which has been described as a "theocracy." John Calvin being one of the most indisputable reformers in Church history, was very strict on upholding the teachings of Christ stated within the Scriptures as being the teachings of how to live our own lives of faith. According to Calvin, he explains that the Church is, "a society of all the saints, a society spread over the whole world, and existing in all ages, yet bound together by the one doctrine and the one Spirit of Christ." (16). Hinging off this theme of a Church of Saints, Calvin wanted to reform the 'corruption' within the Church in his own way, even if it meant splitting from and abandoning the true teaching of Holy Mother Church and all her devout faithful.
Catholicism is one of the main and earliest form of Christianity and also the oldest institution in the world. It has more than one billion followers worldwide which makes seventeen percent of the world. Catholics belief that there is only one God and that Jesus is the son of God much similar to Christianity. They belief that God will judge them based on their actions and that will determine whether they either go to heaven or hell when they die. One of the main figures in this religion is the Pope which is the leader of the Catholic Church which is located in Rome.
The end of the eighth century gave birth to a new kingdom that was known as the Carolingian Empire. This empire came to dominate vast European territories much to the credit of its powerful ruler, Charlemagne. “He created an empire that stretched from the North Sea in the north to Italy in the south and from France in Europe to Vienna in central Europe” (Spielvogel 219). His reign led to the fusion of different entities including, the Germanic tribes, Christianity and the Classical traditions of European civilization. Charlemagne himself was of Germanic heredity, but was born and raised a devoted, practicing Christian.
In “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism,” Max Weber sought to explain the spirit of capitalism through Protestantism. Max Weber argues that Protestant ethics, ideas and virtues that arose out of the Reformation contributed to the emergence and evolution of modern capitalism. The “Protestant Ethic” is ascetic, characterized as “the practice of severe self-discipline and abstention from all forms of indulgence”, a rejection of worldly affairs, including the pursuit of wealth and possessions (Oxford Reference, 2006). Out of Protestantism originates the concept of a “calling,” which gives worldly activity and a religious character, and creates a sense of comfort of alleviation for believers (Weber, 1905/2008, p. 84). Weber establishes Calvinism, a branch of Protestantism, as another factor contributing to the spirit of capitalism.
Lutheranism Lutherans: Origins, history, beliefs, rituals and worship, ethics and community Chibunze Uzo Table of Contents Origins 2 Beginnings 2 Influences 2 History 3 Early Developments 3 Missions and Expansions 3 Beliefs 3 Sacred Narratives 3 Rituals and Worship 4 Sacred Time 4 Symbolism 5 Ethics and Community 5 Community Organization 5 Leadership 6 Works Cited 7 Origins Beginnings Lutheranism began as a reformation against the Catholic Church in the early 16th century with the efforts of a Roman Catholic monk, Martin Luther (1483 - 1546). Luther Started out at the Augustinian monastery in Erfurt, Germany generally because he was afraid for his own salvation, and he believed monasteries were the safest places to avoid sin and
In 4th century, the Athanasian Creed expressed the doctrine following being part of it: to trinitarian christians (catholic christians, eastern orthodox christians and majority of protestant order), the father (God) is not a separate entity from the Son (Jesus, he being incarnation) as well as the Holy Spirit, “the other hypostases of the Christian Almighty” (Taylor 1998). Owing to the endeavors of Karl Barth, who wrote fourteen volumes of Church Dogmatics, the doctrine of the Trinity was given burgeoning theological heed in 20th century (Flores 163). The revelation of word of God is related to the Trinity and this theological focus is what makes Christian concept of God unique and different from other