Regenerative Braking System Research Paper

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Chapter -1
1. Regenerative Braking System-Conventional braking systems convert kinetic energy into heat, usually via friction. This wastes a great deal of energy!
Regenerative braking systems reclaim and storing the kinetic energy in a reusable manner. Many modern electric drive vehicles including electric locomotives and HEVs have regenerative braking systems.EVs use their drive motors to convert kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy
Motors and generators operate under the same principle and can be used interchangeably. The First Law of Thermodynamics dictates that the EV will slow down as this occurs. The generated electrical energy can be dissipated through a resistive network (Dynamic Braking) or stored (Regenerative Braking). Vehicle
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It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.
The simple capacitor filter is the most basic type of power supply filter. The use of this filter is very limited. It is sometimes used on extremely high-voltage, low-current power supplies for cathode-ray and similar electron tubes that require very little load current from the supply. This filter is also used in circuits where the power-supply ripple frequency is not critical and can be relatively high. Below figure can show how the capacitor changes and discharges. Fig.3.2 Filter
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• On/Off time:
LEDs light up very quickly. A typical red indicator LED will achieve full brightness in microseconds. LEDs used in communications devices can have even faster response times. • Cycling:
LEDs are ideal for use in applications that are subject to frequent on-off cycling, unlike fluorescent lamps that burn out more quickly when cycled frequently, or HID lamps that require a long time before restarting. • Cool light:
In contrast to most light sources, LEDs radiate very little heat in the form of IR that can cause damage to sensitive objects or fabrics. Wasted energy is dispersed as heat through the base of the LED. • Lifetime:
LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. One report estimates 35,000 to 50,000 hours of useful life, though time to complete failure may be longer.

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3.5 1N4007 Diodes are used to convert AC into DC these are used as half wave rectifier or full wave rectifier. Three points must he kept in mind while using any type of diode.
1. Maximum forward current capacity
2. Maximum reverse voltage capacity
3. Maximum forward voltage

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